ISSN 0120-3053
printed version

ISSN 2256-5779
online version



Target audience and editorial policy

Apuntes del CENES is aimed at academic and research communities of public and private, national and international institutions and others interested in issues related to the economy, research and development. This journal is distributed through exchanges with centers and research groups as well as libraries and schools of economic, administrative and social sciences of the main universities in Colombia, Latin America and elsewhere.


Form and preparation of manuscripts


Apuntes del CENES is committed to academic quality, the following types of articles are published:

a. Articles of scientific and technological research: document that presents in detail the original results of completed research projects. The structure generally used contains four important sections: introduction, methodology, results and conclusions.

b. Reflection article: document stating results of completed research from an analytical, interpretative or critical about a specific topic based on original sources.

c. Review article: document result of a finished research where they are analyzed, systematized and integrated research results published or unpublished, on a field of science or technology, in order to account for the progress and development trends. It is characterized by a careful literature review of at least fifty references.

    1. Contributions allow the dissemination and discussion of topics such as economics,
    Economic policy, regional economy, international economy and finance. Other topics may be published with the permission of the Editorial Committee and the Editor, considering their relationship and interdisciplinary relevance to economic discipline.

    2. It requires that contributions are competing to be original, unpublished and are postulated simultaneously in other journals or publishers organs. The language of publication is Spanish, but translations from other languages are included.

    3. To submit articles, authors must register at the OJS journal platform [], make shipping on the platform and attach a summary of resume; finally, the next forms should be send and filled out by authors:

Form 6. Copyright Transfer Form

Form 7. Conflict Relation-Interests Form

Form 8. Compliance with Ethical and Scientific Principle

Form 9. Data Set


    1. The articles must be submitted on magnetic medium, Word text file and must meet the following requirements: an extension between 5.000 and 6.000 words or 10,000 and 12,000 words including notes and references; monospace; Times New Roman, size 12 and margins of 3 cm.

    2. Data about the author indicate in a footnote to page (with an asterisk): author name, profession, education level, current employment, workplace, your email and ORCID personal link.

    3. Any request will include the respective summaries in Spanish, English and Portuguese, which may not exceed 110 words and should provide enough information for readers to identify the topic of the article.

    4. Seven keywords, also in Spanish, English and Portuguese were recorded maximum. All items must bear the classification nomenclature Journal Economic Literature (JEL) (Min 5).

    5. The title should be explanatory and capture the essence of the work.

    6. All work will include introduction, it (methodology, results and discussion), conclusions and references.

    7. In the case of articles that use mathematical foundation, the summary should make explicit what is the economic problem it aims to address and what the mathematical model used for this. The assumptions and conclusions of the analysis are also expressed in written words and not just mathematical symbols. Likewise, when formulas, equations or mathematical languages are included, they are delivered complete, or, the corresponding files in electronic format, if the material is delivered in manu.

    8. Equations should be numbered consecutively and brackets ([1], [2], [3] ...). This numbering must be aligned to the right of the page. Mathematical symbols must be clear and legible. Subscript and superscript must be properly published.

    9. The graphs, tables (or tables), figures, maps and photos (if any) of submitted works will be presented in electronic format (shall be of sufficient quality to allow optimal playback. No tables are accepted, graphics or images copied from other works), should be numbered consecutively in order of appearance in the text, and where it will be inserted is indicated. They have a title and legend (the abbreviations used should be clarified in the legend). Every graphic element is delivered, identify software, which necessarily be compatible with the standards used in the preparation of these materials (for figures, maps and photos suggest using image files as .gif, .jpg, .tiff and do not import from Word). Also, tables and graphs should be explained alone (without resorting to the text for your understanding), indicating the units and contain all the footnotes, and the corresponding full sources (for charts or tables it is suggested to use tool Table menu or programs word processors).

    10. The citations and reference list should be made solely on the 6th APA style. Ed. (American Psychological Association) [] and [].

    11. Notes Footer be solely for clarification or explanatory purposes, should not include references.

    12. Citations must be submitted within the text, in the bibliography at the end of work will complete record. The literature cited sources present only at work, in a section entitled: REFERENCES.

    13. With regard to the manner of presenting quotations and references, we suggest to consider the following examples:

• The quotes, have the following characteristics: if occupy forty words or less, shall be preceded by a colon and quotation marks; if they are larger in size, will go in a separate paragraph, indented, without quotation marks and a space aggregates in quotes, they will go in parentheses. In both cases shall be entered as follows: in brackets the author's name, year of publication of the work and the number or page numbers, for example:

(Astudillo, 1999, p. 88-89).

• The paraphrase should contain only the author's name and year of publication, eg:

(Astudillo, 1999).

• If two or more works by the author published the same year, they are distinguished by the letters; a, b, c, etc .; eg

(Astudillo, 1996a, p. 27).

• If the work has more than three authors, cited the first time all surnames on subsequent references, only the first author, followed by the phrase et al is written. If more than six authors, use et al. since the first mention.

• The references are arranged alphabetically, works by the same author are arranged chronologically, leading hanging indent double spaced and laid out as follows:


Author, A. (Year). Book title. Location: Editorial.

Book chapters:

Author, A. & Author, A. (Year). Chapter title entry. In Name, N. (Ed.), Title of book (pp. Xx-xx). City: Publisher.

Article in a printed magazine:

Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Journal title, volume, number, p.p. xx-xx.

Books in electronic form:

Author, A. (Year). Title. City: Publisher. Recovered from

Article from the Web:

1. Journal article

Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of publication, volume (number), pp. xx-xx. Recovered from

2. Book chapter

Author, A. (Year). Title of article. In Author, A. Title of the book. City. Editorial (if any). pp. xx-xx. Recovered from

Article published daily, the Web:

Author, A. (year, day, month). Title of article. Title of publication. Recovered from

If bibliographical references are DOI, you must add them (You can consult the DOI with the Simple Text Qwery tool).

14. When using an acronym or abbreviation, first his complete name and then, in parentheses, the term will be used in the rest of the document is recorded.

15. If you highlight text in a word or phrase is recommended to use italics or underline the words, avoiding the use of bold and quotes.

16. Compliance with these standards is indispensable. Accepted contributions will undergo a process of editing; the authors recommended versions deliver a first correction. Furthermore, its publication is subject to the availability of space in each issue. In no case shall be returned to original author, nor be responsible for the magazine.

17. The Editorial Committee reserves the right to change the title of the articles and make editorial changes deemed necessary, to give the item as clearly as possible. Therefore, the authors are advised to write with greater rigor, checking spelling, using short paragraphs and homogeneous and using punctuation properly.

18. The author assigns the rights to publish to Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. La revista Apuntes del CENES reserves the right to print, electronic publishing and other circumstances, in all languages.

Note: Any situation not covered by these rules of publication, shall be settled by the Editorial Committee considering best practices and ethical aspects established by the agencies to guide publications and academic journals.

Peer Review Process


Referees: The evaluation committee is composed of professionals with wide experience and academic recognition in the topics covered in each article. The evaluation criteria are: originality of the content; conceptual rigor; methodological issues; clarity and consistency, both in argument and in the exhibition; the quality of sources and references; contributions to knowledge; adequate preparation of the summary; relevance title and conclusions. This ensures that the articles published in Apuntes del CENES are of excellent quality.

Confidentiality: The arbitration process items are made in the form of double blind, ensuring the confidentiality and anonymity of authors and referees. In case of discrepancy between one of the two assessors, the text will be sent to a third referee, whose decision will define its publication.

Assessment times:  The evaluation process of a document takes about nine (9) months from the call for evaluators, acceptance and delivery of the item. This period may be higher or lower depending mainly on the achievement of the relevant evaluator, notification of acceptance of the evaluator and its prompt submission of the concept.

Decision: Articles postulates in the different calls will undergo an editorial process that will take place in several phases. Items received are evaluated by the Editorial Committee and the Editor, who will determine the relevance of its publication. Having established that the article complies with the thematic requirements in addition to editorial standards noted in the manual, will be sent to two referees (peer reviewers) Magazine, one internal and one external, who will determine anonymously:

a) Publish unchanged;
b) publishable with adjustments; and
c) not to post.

When an article is listed as "publishable with adjustments" the concepts that underlie it, are put to consideration of the author to make the proposed reforms. The team of the magazine must inform the author during the different stages of the editorial process.

Form 4. Peer Reviewer Final Report

Delivery corrections: If the concepts of pairs suggest slight modifications, authors should stick to a timeline that does not exceed eight (8) weeks. If an item you receive items, representing substantial changes, and management estimates that can be accepted for a new round of evaluations, the authors will have to send your settings to a period no longer than 16 weeks. In all cases, you must submit a report annex relating the changes made in the proposal.

Rejection: The purpose of the evaluation process in Apuntes del CENES also validate the advances in knowledge in our subject areas is to provide an opportunity for authors to improve their proposals and refine their approaches to building more articles solid. In this sense, the authors hope to benefit from the comments of the evaluators when your document is rejected for publication. Although the journal is ready to receive restated articles, authors are asked not to submit a corrected version of a rejected before a period of between three (3) to six (6) months article version. The author must report in detail to the editor that the article has been restructured according to previous comments. The editor will inform authors of the time it should wait, if they express interest resubmit your article. The final rejection of an article, you will when it does correspond to the publisher or  the journal  theme.

Interest Notes: The Editor and the Editorial Committee of Apuntes del CENES are the authorities that decide the publication of the original. We clarify that the sending of material does not mean an obligation to publish it. Formatting and presentation errors, breach of the rules of the journal or spelling or syntactic incorrectness may be grounds for refusal the work without passing the evaluation.

Apuntes del CENES can make public, if they are verified, the following bad scientific practices: plagiarism, falsification or fabrication of data, individual appropriation of collective authorship and duplicate publication.

Sending an article to an evaluation process does not oblige the editorial board of the Apuntes del CENES Journal or their editors to make the publication.

The articles will be received considering the dates established in the announcements.

If coordination of the journal is not acknowledged by the nomination of a job within a period of eight (8) days or if you have not received a response to any post within this period, please redirect your email to:

When an article is approved the author (s) transfer the publishing rights to Apuntes del CENES.

The articles published in Apuntes del CENES may not appear in any mass media without prior publication be cited. For compilation publications, authors should ask express authorization at the journal.

Declaración de ética

Open Access Policy

Apuntes del Cenes provides immediate open access to its content, based on the principle that providing the public with free access to research helps a greater global exchange of knowledge.

Publishing and reproduction of titles, abstracts and full content for academic, scientific, cultural and nonprofit purposes is allowed, when the respective source is acknowledged. This work cannot be used for commercial purposes.

Apuntes del is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

Apuntes del Cenes does not charge authors for submission or publication

Statement of ethics and best practice Revista Apuntes del CENES

Ethical guidelines for publishing (The following guidelines are based on existing ELSIEVER policies and best practice guidelines for editors of scientific journals COPE)

Apuntes del Cenes is a double-blind, peer-reviewed publications. Since inception, the Apuntes del Cenes has been committed to delivering high quality research output and upholding high standards with respect to publication ethics and publication malpractice. In line with the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), Apuntes del Cenes has developed the following criteria for all of the relevant parties involved in the entire publication process.

Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia as editor of Apuntes del CENES, is aware of its duties at all stages of a serious publication, declares the recognition of its own ethical responsibilities and those of its peers.  Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia is committed to ensuring that advertising, reprint or other commercial revenues have no impact or influence on editorial decisions. Besides, the Publishing House of the University and the Editorial Board of the journal are based on communication with other journals and/or publishers, wherever useful and necessary.

The publisher and Apuntes del Cenes have a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (Turnitin). All submissions will be checked by Turnitin and before being sent to reviewers.

 A. Our Ethical Guidelines

  • Duties of authors (These guidelines are based on the policies proposed by COPE and ElSEVIER).

Information Standards: The authors of the original research articles must give an accurate account of the works, as well as an objective discussion of their significance. The underlying data must be accurately represented in the document. The articles must be clear, detailed and have references to enable others to replicate the work. The fraudulent knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable. Review articles and other professional publications must also be precise and objective and works of editorial opinion shall be clearly identified as such.

Retention and access to data: The authors are invited to provide the original data into a document for editing, and should facilitate public access to these data, or ensure the availability of data after publication.

Originality and plagiarism: Authors must be assured that they have written entirely original works, if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, they should ensure that these have been duly cited or quoted. Plagiarism takes many forms, from passing a document of others as their own, to copying or paraphrasing substantial parts of a document of others (without attributing acknowledgement), claiming as their own the results of research carried out by other. Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical behavior, which is unacceptable in scientific publications.

Concurrent, multiple or redundant publication: In general, an author should not publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research published in more than one journal or primary publication. The presentation of the same manuscript to more than one journal is simultaneously unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. In general, an author should not submit an article prior to consideration of another journal. The publication of some types of articles (for example, methodological guides, translations) in more than one magazine, is justifiable in some cases provided specific conditions are met. The authors and publishers of the journals concerned must agree to the secondary publication which should reflect the same data and interpretation of the primary document. The primary reference must be cited in the secondary publication.

Proper attribution of sources: Always give proper recognition to the work of others. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the work reported. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence or discussion with third parties, should not be used or reported without express written permission from the source. The information obtained in the course of confidential, such as arbitration manuscripts or grant applications services should not be used without the express written permission of the author of the work which the information is taken.

The authorship of the document: The authorship of the document should be limited to a maximum of three, which have made a significant contribution in the conception, design, execution and interpretation of the article. If there are other professionals who have participated in substantive aspects of the research project, they must be recognized and listed as contributors. The main author must ensure that all co-authors have reviewed and approved the final version of the document, agreeing unanimously submission for publication.

Conflicts of interest: All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial conflict of interest or other interest that might arise in the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should have credits allocated to them. Some examples of potential conflicts of interest that should be manifest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership and professional fees, paid expert testimony, patent or registrations applications and scholarships or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed at the earliest possible stage of the editorial process.

Fundamental errors in published works: When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his article, it is his obligation to immediately notify the journal editor or editorial board and cooperate with the editor to remove or correct the document. If the editor finds out through a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the editor briefly correct the article and provide evidence to the author of the correctness of the original document.

All authors must fill and send back the next forms:
Form 6. Copyright Transfer Form
Form 7. Conflict Relation-Interests Form
Form 8. Compliance with Ethical and Scientific Principle
Form 9. Data Set

  • Duties of the Editorial Board

Publication decisions: The editor of the Revista Apuntes del CENES (refereed by academic peer) and the Editorial Committee are responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The approval of the work in question and its importance for researchers and readers are part of these decisions. The editor is guided by the policies of the Editorial Board of the magazine, invoking the in force legal aspects regarding libel, violation of copyright and plagiarism. The editor can seek support from other editors or reviewers for making this decision.

Fair play: An editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnicity, nationality, or political philosophy of the authors.

Confidentiality: The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, if appropriate.

Disclosure of conflicts of interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in a manuscript submitted for publication in the journal should not be used in an editor's own without the express and written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal gain. Editors should not conceptualize on an article if it considers that the document may create conflicts of interest resulting from competitive relations or connections, collaboration or otherwise with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to magazines.

Participation and cooperation in investigations: The editor must respond when complaints arise regarding a published article, whose cooperation the respective credit claim. Such measures shall promptly notify the author of the article also apply due process to the request, shall also provide information deemed relevant to the competent institutions and research organizations, and if the complaint is sustained, the publication should make the correction, retraction The expression of concern, or other note, which may be relevant to clarify the situation. Every act of unethical conduct identified in the publication will be considered, albeit discovered years after publication.

  • Duties of reviewers

Contribution to editorial decisions: Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through communications with the author may also help improve the drafting and document quality. Peer review is an essential component of formal scholarly communication, and is in the heart of the scientific method. Apuntes del CENES shares the opinion of many researchers who wish to contribute to publications have an obligation to participate fairly in the process of peer review.

Punctuality: Any selected referee who does not feel qualified to review the article should promptly report it is impossible to review its decision informing the editor.

Notice: All manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They should not be presented or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

Standards of objectivity: Comments should be carried out objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly, supported by arguments.

Proper recognition of sources: Reviewers should identify relevant published works which have not been cited by the authors. Any statement, observation, derivation, or argument has been previously registered should be accompanied by the appropriate citation. A reviewer should also call the attention of the editor of any substantial or partial similarity between the manuscript under consideration and any other published having personal knowledge of the document.

Disclosure of conflicts of interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in a paper presented at the selection process should not be used Authors' own research without the express written consent of the author. Inside information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal gain. Reviewers should not evaluate articles that have conflicts of interest resulting from the relationship or connections of competence, collaboration or otherwise with any of the authors, companies or institutions related texts to evaluate.

B. Our Policy Regarding Malpractice

1. As soon as any alleged misconduct or unethical behaviour on the part of any author(s) or reviewer(s) comes to the attention of the editorial office, the Editor shall immediately begin a proper and thorough investigation. The accused shall be given an adequate opportunity to defend his/her actions and explain his/her position. Based on the available evidence, if it is ascertained that the breach is minor, the Editor shall give to the accused a written stern warning not to repeat the infraction in the future.

2. However, if the breach is determined to be of a serious nature, then the Editor shall inform the editorial advisors within the Apuntes del Cenes and a proper and thorough investigation will commence. The accused shall be given an adequate opportunity to respond to any allegation(s) of wrong doing. Based on available evidence, if the accused is found to be guilty of misconduct, then, in addition to a stern warning note, the employer of the accused shall be notified about the incident and/or the wrongdoer shall be permanently placed on a blacklist with regard to theApuntes del Cenes.

3. Alternatively, in the event that the available evidence does not lead to a finding of wrongdoing, the accused will be notified in writing of the conclusion of the investigation.

4. In dealing with ethical breach, Apuntes del Cenes shall not discriminate against any accused based on race, religion, gender, age, ethnicity, political belief, sexual orientation, country of origin, etc. All allegations shall be taken seriously and treated in the same manner until a final decision or definitive conclusion is reached.

5. The investigation process shall be carried out in such a way that details of the incident do not spread beyond those individuals with a need to know.


Intellectual property

For Apuntes del CENES journal, sending an article states that the author (s) certifies and agree (s):

• The article has not been accepted for review by another journal, and has not been published.
• That in the event being reported the publication of a prior version as a working paper (or ‘gray literature’) in a website, and that if accepted publication, will be removed from the website, in which It will leave only the title, abstract, keywords and link to the journal. • That once published in Notes of CENES not be published in another journal.


Sending of manuscripts

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. El envío no ha sido publicado previamente ni se ha sometido a consideración por ninguna otra revista (o se ha proporcionado una explicación al respecto en los Comentarios al editor/a).
  2. El archivo de envío está en formato OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, RTF o WordPerfect.
  3. Siempre que sea posible, se proporcionan direcciones URL para las referencias.
  4. El texto tiene interlineado sencillo; 12 puntos de tamaño de fuente; se utiliza cursiva en lugar de subrayado (excepto en las direcciones URL); y todas las ilustraciones, figuras y tablas se encuentran colocadas en los lugares del texto apropiados, en vez de al final.
  5. El texto se adhiere a los requisitos estilísticos y biliográficos resumidos en las Directrices del autor/a, que aparecen en Acerca de la revista.
  6. Si se envía a una sección evaluada por pares de la revista, deben seguirse las instrucciones en Asegurar una evaluación anónima.

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