Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología
versão impressa ISSN 0034-7434
IACOPONI, Sara et al. Massive fetomaternal hemorrage cause hydrops in pregnancy at term: Case report and literature revision. Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol [online]. 2011, vol.62, n.4, pp. 338-344. ISSN 0034-7434.
Objective: massive fetomaternal hemorrhage is a rarely occurring complication during pregnancy which can cause severe fetal anemia and intrauterine fetal death. A clinical case is presented here to review the pertinent pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Materials and methods: the case of a 39 weeks pregnant woman admitted to La Paz Hospital in Madrid is reported; this hospital is the center for perinatal and maternal attention. The patient was referred due to sonographic signs of hydrops and right heart failure. Cardiotocographic records showed a sinusoidal pattern. The newborn presented metabolic acidosis and severe anemia. Pathologic examination of the placenta was suggestive of chronic fetal anemia. The Kleihauer-Betke test revealed a 90-100 ml fetomaternal hemorrhage. A literature search was made in Medline via Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS and SciELO and the Cochrane Library. Conclusion: intrauterine diagnosis is difficult; massive fetomaternal hemorrhage should be suspected when a woman refers to reduced fetal movements and when the record shows a sinusoidal pattern in cardiotocography. Ultrasound is usually bland and Doppler of the middle cerebral artery may help in identifying cases of fetal anemia, revealing an increased systolic peak. Such cases must be identified early on to start symptomatic treatment of anemia.
Palavras-chave : fetomaternal hemorrhage; sinusoidal pattern; Kleihauer-Betke test; hydrops; fetal anemia.