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Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología

Print version ISSN 0034-7434
On-line version ISSN 2463-0225

Abstract

FONSECA-BECERRA, Carlos Eduardo  and  RIVERA-TOVAR, Gina María. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: a presentation of three cases and a literature review. Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol [online]. 2012, vol.63, n.2, pp.168-174. ISSN 0034-7434.

The most frequently occurring perinatal infection is caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV); this infection is the main cause of deafness and compromise during psychomotor development in the fetus and the newborn. Screening, diagnosis and management have not been protocolized in prenatal control. The prognosis for such patients will depend on their suitable management. Three cases are presented with the aim of reviewing prenatal diagnosis and newborn management. Materials and methods: Three cases of congenital CMV infection are presented; they were diagnosed at the Hernando Moncaleano teaching hospital in Neiva (Huila department) which is a reference centre for Colombia’s south-western region. A search was made of Medline/PudMed, Embase, Lilacs and the Cochrane library databases. Results: 31 articles were found: 2 evidence-based guidelines, 6 systematic reviews, 2 consensus opinions/guidelines from the Asociación Española de Pediatría, 4 case-control studies, 4 cohort studies, 12 narrative reviews and 1 analytical decisions and costs study. Conclusion: Routine screening for CMV during prenatal control is not recommended; screening should be done in high-risk pregnant females. Usual screening methods would include specific immunoglobulin IgM (ELISA) and the G (IgG) antibody avidity test. If such test is low, then this would confirm recent infection; the confirmatory test would be PCR for CMV. PCR is used as the screening test in the newborn and the gold standard would be viral culture. Specific immunoglobulin should be used for fetal protection in females suffering gestational infection.

Keywords : Congenital cytomegalovirus; pregnancy; perinatal management; newborn.

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