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vol.33 suppl.1History and Neurosciences.: PSYCHIATRY AND NEUROBIOLOGIC INVESTIGATION: BETWEEN FASCINATION AND FRUSTRATIONON THE COLUMNAR ORGANIZATION OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEZ índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
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Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría

versão impressa ISSN 0034-7450

Resumo

PIMIENTA J, Hernán José. THE CEREBRAL CORTEX BEYOND THE CORTEX. rev.colomb.psiquiatr. [online]. 2004, vol.33, suppl.1, pp.58-75. ISSN 0034-7450.

Higher brain functions depend upon the cerebral cortex. This structure influences directly or indirectly the activities of other brain regions and the spinal cord. It is widely accepted that the neocortex evolved in mammals from the archicortex (hippocampal cortex) and the paleocortex (olfactory cortex). Cytoarchitectonic and connectivity patterns evoke in different cortical areas these primitive ancestors. Structural, neurochemical and functional diversity characterizes the cerebral cortex but regional variations should not be used as criteria to visualize the cortex in a reductionistic perspective, instead interactions among different areas and subcortical structures offer a more rational approach. There are two main types of cortical neurons: excitatory pyramidal or efferent and inhibitory interneurons or local circuit neurons. These neurons interconnect each other and are disposed in tangential (laminar) and columnar (translaminar) arrays. Glutamatergic and gabaergic neurons are connected by extrinsec modulatory afferents (dopaminergic, serotoninergic, cholionergic, norepinephrinic and histaminergic) coming from different subcortical sources specially the brainstem. Excitatory glutamatergic afferents originated in the thalamus provide inputs to the cortex related to sensory, motor, visceral and emotional information. A complex system of cortico-cortical, commissural and projection neurons determine the output of each cortical subunit or module to other cortical areas or subcortical structures. The cortex thus controls thought, consciousness, attention, memory, language, motor activity and emotions.

Palavras-chave : Cerebral cortex; prefrontal; evolution; cytoarchitecture; neurotransmitter.

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