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Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría

versão impressa ISSN 0034-7450

Resumo

GALVEZ, Juan Francisco. Stress Disorders and their Neuropsycoendocrinological Repercussions . rev.colomb.psiquiatr. [online]. 2005, vol.34, n.1, pp.77-100. ISSN 0034-7450.

Stress Disorders have been among us since the beginning of humanity. Now a Days, we find them in a wide spectrum of population affected by stress, such as the classic stress disorders due to severe and extreme stress reactions, as well as on those submitted to the suffering of a cronical medical illness. The Neurobiological and clinical correlates found until now, associated with stress and its manifestations, will help us understand the complexity behind the severe disruption in the psychological functioning of individuals affected chronically. The great majority of longitudinal studies and clinical trials have been conducted with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and a few with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) patients in combat, natural disasters and criminal violence situations. Increased numbers of publications worldwide are focusing on other groups affected by stress, making more and more emphasis on the medically ill patient. The following article summarizes the results of most of the studies done so far on the subject, concerning primarily with the functioning of the neuroendocrine and sympathetic nervous systems, Inflammation cascades, implicated neurotransmitters, imaging studies and soft neurological signs findings. A follow up on the multiplicity of interactions between amygdala, hippocampus, neuroendocrine systems and the significant dysregulation associated with stress will be thourghouly revised as well. These findings should bring new sights on better and safer quality interventions, also making complementary treatment available in order to slow the progression of the disorder and improve the quality of life of a larger number of patients. This Knowledge will help us understand and control some of the psychiatric manifestations magnified by stress in vulnerable individuals. In spite of the limited evidence, hopefully in the future, this will be an area of clinical research for a larger spectrum of disorders.

Palavras-chave : acute stress disorder (ASD); postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); chronic stress; hypotalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA); psychoinmmunology; neuropsychoendocrinology; sympathetic nervous system (SNS); amygdala; hippocampus; neurobiology of fear.

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