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Revista de la Facultad de Medicina

Print version ISSN 0120-0011


ANGEL-MULLER, Edith et al. Gestational and congenital toxoplasmosis in two hospitals in Bogota, Colombia. [online]. 2014, vol.62, n.2, pp.179-185. ISSN 0120-0011.

Background. Gestational toxoplasmosis is acquired during pregnancy and involves a risk of the parasite crossing the placenta, thereby leading to foetal infection, which can lead to serious sequelae in children, mainly chorioretinitis, cerebral calcification, hydrocephalus and intellectual disability. Objective. Determining the prevalence of maternal and neonatal toxoplasmosis in women attending the Engativa and La Victoria hospitals in Bogota, Colombia, for delivery. Correlating the results with those of a national multicentre study. Determining IgM and IgA anti-toxoplasma prevalence in newborn (NB) umbilical cord blood. Materials and methods. This was a cohort study, which was approved by the participating institutions' ethics committees. The patients signed informed consent forms and filled out a survey requesting demographic and prenatal care data. A blood sample was taken from the umbilical cord on delivery for determining anti-toxoplasma IgM. Anti-toxoplasma IgA was also measured in a subset of patients. Children suspected of having either clinical or serological congenital toxoplasmosis were followed-up for 12 months. Results. The study involved taking 3,224 NB umbilical cord blood samples between April 1st 2009 and July 16th 2010. Positive anti-toxoplasma IgG was found in 28.2% of pregnant women (26.1-29.8 95%CI). Anti-toxoplasma IgM was determined in 558 pregnant women and found positive in 34 patients (i.e. 1.1 per 100 NB gestational toxoplasmosis incidence). Nine blood samples were positive (7 for IgM and 2 for IgA). Five of the NB studied (0.15%) were positive for IgG after 12 months' follow-up, thereby confirming a diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis accounting for 1 in every 645 live births. Conclusion. This study showed that 70% of the pregnant women were not infected with T. gondii in the chosen hospitals in Bogotá. Gestational toxoplasmosis frequency was around 1% and 0.6% for congenital toxoplasmosis.

Keywords : Toxoplasmosis; Congenital; Pregnancy; Prevalence; Diagnosis.

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