Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Pecuarias
Print version ISSN 0120-0690
SILVA, Gabriela and LOPEZ, Héctor S. Genes involved in pathogenesis, persistence, and excretion of Salmonella in animal models. Rev Colom Cienc Pecua [online]. 2012, vol.25, n.1, pp. 107-122. ISSN 0120-0690.
Infectious diseases can be studied from different perspectives; from the global epidemiology to the detailed interactions between the pathogen and the host cell. Central to a complete understanding of any disease is the ability to integrate information from different points of view into a coherent model that fully explains the disease process. In vivo infections have been studied mainly in murine models, in which the possibility of genetically manipulating either the bacterium or the host allows variations in the severity of the host–pathogen combination and facilitates the evaluation of individual bacterial and host traits. Gross parameters, such as host mortality, clinical signs, overall bacterial numbers in the tissues, pathological changes, shedding patterns, production of immune mediators, as well as fluctuations and phenotypic profiles of cell populations have been widely used in the descriptive analysis of in vivo infection pathogenesis. However, key factors, such as bacterial location, spatiotemporal patterns of spread and tissue distribution, as well as sites of microbial persistence, have not been sufficiently studied despite their importance in terms of targeted medical intervention. This review aims to give a broad overview of the molecular basis associated with Salmonella infection in murine and other experimental animal models, focusing on organ location, and bacteria spread and distribution. The special conditions that promote bacteria retention and excretion in asymptomatic animals are also highlighted. It aims to gain a better understanding of the infectious process, so that comprehensive reassessment of pathogen behavior allow the establishment of preventive medicine programs in both humans and domestic or wild animals.
Keywords : animal models; genes; pathogenesis.