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HERNANDEZ, Juan Carlos; MONTOYA, Carlos Julio  and  URCUQUI-INCHIMA, Silvio. The role of toll-like receptors in viral infections: HIV-1 as a model. Biomédica [online]. 2007, vol.27, n.2, pp.280-293. ISSN 0120-4157.

The toll-like receptors are an essential component of the innate and adaptive immune response. They are responsible for the recognition of different pathogens agents and trigger responses directed at eliminating the pathogens as well as the development of immunological long-term memory. During viral infections, several different toll-like receptors are activated. These generally induce a protective immune response, but at the same time, can also be part of the pathogenic mechanisms of the viral infection. One of the viral infections in which toll-like receptors participate is the HIV-1 infection. Here, several receptors are activated to develop antiviral responses mediated by interferon type I; however virus replication and spreading dissemination are also favoured by signals derived from stimulation of the toll-like receptors. Individuals co-infected with opportunistic microorganisms are particularly affected, promoting the progression of HIV-1 infection. An integral understanding of the behavior of toll-like receptors during viral infections will allow the design of prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategies, based on the modulation of the expression and function of these receptors. Agonists of these receptors can be used effectively to control these viral infections.

Keywords : toll-like receptors [immunology]; virus diseases; HIV-1; opportunistic infections; immunotherapy; immunity, natural.

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