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Print version ISSN 0120-4157On-line version ISSN 2590-7379


ISAZA, Carlos et al. Genetic and bioenvironmental factors associated with warfarin response in Colombian patients. Biomédica [online]. 2010, vol.30, n.3, pp.410-420. ISSN 0120-4157.

Introduction.Warfarin is an anticoagulant that is difficult to administer because of its narrow therapeutic margin and the numerous factors that influence patient response. Objective. Demographic, clinical and genetic variables were characterized to establish the appropriate maintenance dosages of warfarin. Materials and methods. The Colombian patients consisted of 145 adults of both sexes. They were in stable anticoagulation status with international normalized ratio between 2 and 3 for at least two months, and without changes in the warfarin commercial preparation or in the dosage. After signing the informed consent, the following data was recorded for each volunteer: age, gender, weight, height, smoker status, co-morbidity, co-medication, International Normalized Ratio (INR), warfarin dose, and commercial brand. Each patient was typed for genes CYP2C9, VKORC1, CYP4F2 and PROC; for 59 patients, the serum levels of warfarin were quantified. The genotyping and the blood quantification were performed by mini-sequencing and HPLC methods, respectively. Results. Age, co-medication with enzymatic inhibitors (amiodarone, sertraline, fluoxetine) or inducers (phenytoin, carbamazepine), and the alleles rs1799853 (*2) and rs1057910 (*3) of the CYP2C9 gene, as well as rs9923231 of the VKORC1 gene were associated with warfarin dose required to achieve anticoagulation with INR of 2-3. These variables were included in a multiple linear regression model for predicting the optimum dose/week of warfarin. This resulted in an algorithm that explained 47.4% of the variability in the dose responses. Conclusion: Clinical and pharmacogenetic variables provided a basis for improving the safety and effective dosage of warfarin; however, the use of a pharmacogenetic algorithm will require patient data obtained during clinical trials.

Keywords : warfarina [farmacología]; warfarin [pharmacology]; pharmacogenetics; anticoagulants; blood coagulation; polymorphism; genetic; prothrombin time; vitamin K.

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