Revista Salud Uninorte
versão On-line ISSN 2011-7531
BAYONA PRIETO, Jaime; BAYONA, Edgardo A e LEON-SARMIENTO, Fidias E. Neuroplasticity, Neuromodulation and Neurorehabilitation: Three different concepts, one only true goal. Salud, Barranquilla [online]. 2011, vol.27, n.1, pp. 95-107. ISSN 2011-7531.
The nervous system is a closed system but, at the same time, is very dynamic and able to adapt, reorganize and modify the biological, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that it poses. This ability is called neuroplasticity and implies changes in neural structures such as axonal regeneration, collateralization, neurogenesis, synaptogenesis and functional reorganization, among other mechanisms. These mechanisms involve different neurotransmitters such as N-metil-D-apartate (NMDA), gama-amynobutiric acid (GABA), acetilcholine or serotonine; they are involved in short-term depression and potentiation which may last hours or days, maintained by second messengers such as cyclic AMP; its effects may be transient or permanents, and they are the basis of neuromodulation. This latter concept involves long term changes on the neuronal metabolism and its responses to electrical, magnetic or chemical stimuli are employed for neurorehabilitation. Neurorehabilitation is an intervention that must be applied in, at least, seventy five percent of patients suffering neural injuries being its main goal the functional recovery of patients. Accordingly, clinical neurologist, neurosurgeons, pediatricians, neuropediatricians, orthopedic surgeons, psychiatrists and general surgeons, among other health care professionals should offer not only a diagnosis and its corresponding medical or surgical treatment, but also to reorient patients toward neurorehabilitation programs led by a specialist properly trained in this area. This will help patients to obtain optimal functioning, better neurorestaurative condition and a more appropriate quality of life of patients and their relatives.
Palavras-chave : Neuroplasticity; neuromodulation; neurorehabilitation; sensorimotor integration; neurophysiatrist.