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Revista Salud Uninorte

Print version ISSN 0120-5552On-line version ISSN 2011-7531


OROZCO-HERNANDEZ, Juan Pablo; MARIN-MEDINA, Daniel Stiven; MARTINEZ-MUNOZ, Manuel A.  and  MARTINEZ, José W.. Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes. Salud, Barranquilla [online]. 2018, vol.34, n.3, pp.766-783. ISSN 0120-5552.

Breast cancer is a disease with a significant incidence and mortality among women. Genetic factors in its genesis have not yet been fully recognized, but the important role of predisposing genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, and other newly discovered genes in hereditary forms and mainly in the triple negative phenotype are recognized.

Hereditary breast cancer represents between 5-10 % of the total cases of this pathology. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are large genes, and their main function is to maintain chromosomal integrity, repairing double strand breaks of DNA by means of homologous recombination. The other predisposing genes, for the most part, play a role in the maintenance and repair of DNA. Currently, there are tests to detect mutations of these genes in patients at risk, implementing early medical interventions, psychological support to the person and obtaining a more reliable diagnosis; which in the long run could reduce the high costs of cancer. Among the available therapies for these patients are preventive surgeries such as bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy, pharmacological treatments such as the use of tamoxifen, oral contraceptives or the recent PARP inhibitors (Poly ADP Ribose Poymerase). The objective of this review is to emphasize the biological, genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of hereditary breast cancer for all health workers.

Keywords : Breast cancer; BRCA1 gene; BRCA2 gene.

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