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Acta Neurológica Colombiana

Print version ISSN 0120-8748

Abstract

OTERO FLOREZ, Julissa Andrea; GOMEZ NAVAS, María del Pilar; CORNEJO OCHOA, José William  and  CABRERA HEMER, Dagoberto Nicanor. Clinical and paraclinical characteristics in children with acute bacterial meningitis at the Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación, in Medellín, Colombia. 2011 - 2015: descriptive- retrospective study. Acta Neurol Colomb. [online]. 2017, vol.33, n.2, pp.84-93. ISSN 0120-8748.  http://dx.doi.org/10.22379/24224022138.

OBJECTIVES:

To describe the clinical and paraclinical features in children between 3 months and 14 years of age with acute bacterial meningitis diagnosis. To describe neuroimaging finds, to specify germs isolated and its susceptibility pattern by antiobiogram. To establish neurological after hospital discharge-effects and to document the frequency of mortality in hospitalized patients by ABM at San Vicente Foundation University Hospital (from HUSVF).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Retrospective-descriptive study. Registries of patients with acute bacterial meningitis diagnose at the moment of hospital discharge were included, since January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2015. Data was collected from medical histories at the HUSVF Children Hospital. Patients admitted were children between 3 months and 14 years of age with acute bacterial meningitis clinical diagnose having altered CSF; they also had to fulfill one ore more of the following requirements: positive hemoculture, positive latex, culture isolation of CSF, or clinical requirement and suggestive ABM evolution. Demographic information, clinical manifestations while hospital admission and findings in laboratory tests were extracted as well as after-effect presence and complications during the hospital-stay. SPSS IBM Statistics 23,0 was used.

RESULTS:

44 patients with an average of 63,7 months (SD 56,4) were included. Male sex was predominant with 27 boys (61,4%). Most of the patients (86,4%) lived in Antioquia, Colombia. Most frequent symptoms were: fever 77,3%, altered state of consciousness 77,3%, vomiting 70,5%, and seizure 54,5%. Only 40,9% of the cases showed headache. Meningeal irritation had also a high percentage, neck stiffness had 70,5%. Lumbar puncture was performed after antibiotic treatment in 30 patients, so that microbiological isolation in CSF culture was only possible in 22,5% of the cases, being the S. pneumoniae the predominant microorganism. The second isolated microorganism by frecuency was non typeable H. influenzae and N. meningitidis. Neurological deficits were observed in the 50% of the sample like: sort of motor deficit, epilepsy, sensorineural hearing loss, and alteration of cranial nerves. Mortality represented 13,6%.

CONCLUSIONS:

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent agent-cause though H. influenzae tipificable and Neisseria meningitides epidemiological monitoring must not be overlooked. This study shows difficulties involving meningitis etiology identification. Many of the cases get antibiotics before definitive diagnose. Although all laboratory techniques were used, representative number of patients remained without diagnoses. Therefore, to know meningitis etiological profile at a region is not only a simple medical curiosity, it is a fundamental basis for making therapeutic and prophylactic decisions.

Keywords : meningitis; neurologic manifestations; cerebrospinal fluid; Spinal puncture; (MeSH).

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