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Acta Neurológica Colombiana

Print version ISSN 0120-8748

Abstract

HERNANDEZ-FLOREZ, Cristhian Eduardo  and  CONTRERAS-GARCIA, Gustavo Adolfo. Rett syndrome: review of the literature and first cases reported in Colombia with clinical characterization and molecular diagnosis. Acta Neurol Colomb. [online]. 2018, vol.34, n.1, pp.2-15. ISSN 0120-8748.  http://dx.doi.org/10.22379/24224022174.

INTRODUCTION:

Rett Syndrome is a severe neurological condition and the second genetic cause of profound mental retardation in women. It is generated by mutations in the MECP2 gene and it is characterized by a loss of psychomotor gains, with an estimated overall prevalence of 1:10,000 girls, according to the extrapolation of some European studies. Objectives. To make a review of Rett Syndrome and to present a series of cases diagnosed in Colombia by clinical criteria and molecular tests.

METHODOLOGY:

We made a bibliographic research in 21 international databases, more than 14 health journals and two general search engines between 2014 and 2016. The cases presented were selected from the Medical Genetics consultation carried out by the authors.

FINDINGS:

No Colombian case of Rett Syndrome was found nor confirmed with molecular testing in Latin America. We report the first cases in Colombia and the largest in Latin America, consisting of seven patients with classic type and three with atypical type, all with molecular diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

In spite of having a characterized clinical evolution, its low prevalence and broad clinical spectrum, make Rett Syndrome a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report for the first time the mutation c.749_750insT, the c.473C> G for second time in the literature and the c.763C> T is presented in two patients with totally different phenotypes, confirming the non-correlation genotype-phenotype of the disease.

Keywords : Rett syndrome; intellectual disability; MECP2; rett prevalence; Colombia (MeSH).

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