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Agronomía Colombiana

versão impressa ISSN 0120-9965

Resumo

HERRERA, Juan Carlos. Molecular cytogenetics in plant genome analysis. Agron. colomb. [online]. 2007, vol.25, n.1, pp.26-35. ISSN 0120-9965.

Cytogenetics would be defined as a discipline concerned with the genetic implications of chromosome structure and behavior. During past twenty years cytogenetics studies were carried out due to the information derived from classical methods based on chromosome deletions and translocations. As a result of such studies, the first cytogenetic models in such species as tomato, wheat, and rice were created. Significant advances in most plant cytogenetic systems have occurred in the last quarter of the 20 century with the introduction of chromosome banding, in situ hybridization, and other techniques for the analysis of somatic and meiotic chromosomes. Most of current cytogenetic protocols are based on the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technology. This DNA:DNA in situ method had opened a possibility to address chromatin regions of individual chromosomes on the basis of DNA sequence information in addition of mere morphological features. With genome mapping projects underway sequencing chromosomes and genomes, cytogenetic research had become more relevant. In this review, a historical perspective of chromosome research during the last 80 years is presented. It shows the progression of the 'classical cytogenetics' up to current 'molecular cytogenetics' founded on high resolution techniques such as FISH. The diversity of applications is illustrated through some practical examples of valuable current utilization of FISH-based methodologies in plant breeding programs, as well as in structural and functional genomics.

Palavras-chave : in situ hibridization; FISH; plant breeding; plant chromosomes; cytogenetic map.

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