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Iatreia

Print version ISSN 0121-0793

Abstract

ROMAN-GONZALEZ, Alejandro et al. Hypoparathyroidism: Basis for the approach and appropiate treatment. Iatreia [online]. 2018, vol.31, n.2, pp.155-165. ISSN 0121-0793.  http://dx.doi.org/10.17533/udea.iatreia.v31n2a04.

Hypoparathyroidism is an infrequent disorder. The main characteristic is low calcium with low PTH. The estimate prevalence is 37 cases per 100.000 inhabitants. The most frequent cause (75 % of all cases) is removal of parathyroid gland during neck surgery. Other causes are polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1, genetic disorders such as DiGeorge anomaly, or functional disorders like hypomagnesemia. Hypocalcemia may produce neuromuscular symptoms and seizures. Chronic manifestations include ectopic calcifications. The diagnosis of hypoparathyroidism is made when calcium is below normal in presence of low or undetectable PTH (< 20 pg/mL). Magnesium, phosphorus and 24-hour urine calcium should be measured in all patients with hypoparathyroidism. The management of this disease is with calcium supplements plus active vitamin D (calcitriol). In some cases, with hypercalciuria, a thiazide diuretic may be used. Recently, the use of recombinant PTH 1-84 was approved in the United Stated and Europe. This treatment is indicated in patients with uncontrolled hypoparathyroidism despite increasing doses of calcium and calcitriol or in patients with complications of hypoparathyroidism or deceased quality of life.

Keywords : Calcium; Hypocalcemia; Hypoparathyroidism; Parathyroid; Phosphorus.

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