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Avances en Enfermería

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Abstract

CIFUENTES, Lida Yoana; MANRIQUE ABRIL, Fred Gustavo  and  OSPINA DIAZ, Juan Manuel. Factors linked with the discovery of preneoplastic lesion detected in pap smear: a case-control study. av.enferm. [online]. 2014, vol.32, n.1, pp.63-71. ISSN 0121-4500.  http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/av.enferm.v32n1.46064.

Objective: To identify sociocultural factors linked with the presence of precancerous lessions in women living in a predominantly rural municipality in Boyacá, Colombia. Materials and Methods: An observational analytical retrospective case-control study. From the institutional memory, by sequential random sampling, there were selected a sample of 168 women: 42 cases and 126 controls, matched by age and socioeconomic status, they were asked through a questionnaire, about antecedents, and family and cultural factors, possibly associated with the presence of preneoplastic lesions in vaginal smears. Results: Age range 16 to 71 years, average age 42.2 years (SD = 14.57), 79.2% with steady partner, 90.0% completed only primary education or less, 11.3% smoked, average age of menarche was 13.8 years (SD = 1.38) and 17.9% had menarche at 12 or younger; all women have had at least one pregnancy and 66.1% had 3 or more. The average age of first pregnancy is 19.7 years (SD = 3.45) and range of age at first pregnancy between 15 and 29 years in 35.7% of cases the first pregnancy occurred before 18 years, 31.5% had family history of cancer. The following factors were significantly associated with the presence of preneoplastic lesion in the pap smear: a history of 2 or more sexual partners (OR = 85.0), first pregnancy before 18 years (OR = 40.0), family history of cancer (OR = 23.9), smoking (OR = 12.1), sexual initiation before age 17 (OR = 11.8), drinking alcohol (OR = 10.8), history of vaginal infections (OR = 10.1), 3 or more pregnancies (OR = 5.2), no education (OR = 3.49), history of abortion (OR = 2 , 87). Conclusion: There are risk factors amenable to educational interventions and motivation, which could substantially improve the opportunity and coverage of promotion and prevention programs, as well as adherence to the practice of the pap smear.

Keywords : Health Promotion; Cervix Neoplasms Prevention; Risk Factors; Vaginal Smears.

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