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SANCHEZ, Zita Elena Lagos; PIMENTA, Cibele Andrucioli de Mattos  and  URRUTIA, María Teresa. Nursing Warmth Scale (NWS): Development and empirical validation. av.enferm. [online]. 2022, vol.40, n.2, pp.267-282.  Epub Feb 23, 2023. ISSN 0121-4500.


To construct and validate the Nursing Warmth Scale (NWS) through the development of a standardized measurement of nurses' warmth, perceived from the perspective of patients, and identify the behaviors and factors associated with this feeling of warmth.

Materials and methods:

The NWS was developed following the scale construction methodology under a triphasic model. The construction of items was elaborated based on the results of a previously published integrative review that consolidated the construct and the related variables. A qualitative phase was also incorporated to evaluate the latent variable. Content validity was assessed with 10 expert judges. An item try-out was conducted with 476 patients in health institutions. Exploratory factor analysis -through the common factor method and oblique rotation- was used for the item reduction process.


The construct "Nursing Warmth" was established after the theoretical and empirical phases of the study. The literature review and interviews with 23 patients and 25 nursing professionals provided a set of behaviors divided into 2 categories: verbal and nonverbal behaviors. Exploratory factor analysis allowed identifying 5 factors and 35 items. The reliability was estimated through Cronbach's alpha. The identified factors are: F1-Nonverbal connection-relationship with the other (0.943), F2-Empathy (0.909), F3-Verbal connection-relationship with the other (0.914), F4-Inclusion (0.858), and F5-Confidence (0.852). The Tucker-Lewis Index was 0.901.


The NWS demonstrates evidence of reliability and validity. This tool may be useful in clinical settings and for teaching and research addressing interpersonal nursing skills.

Keywords : Nursing Care; Nurse-Patient Relations; Empathy; Trust; Psychometrics (source: DeCS, BIREME).

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