CT&F - Ciencia, Tecnología y Futuro
versión impresa ISSN 0122-5383
BAYONA, German et al. PALEOCENE-MIDDLE MIOCENE FLEXURAL-MARGIN MIGRATION OF THE NONMARINE LLANOS FORELAND BASIN OF COLOMBIA. C.T.F Cienc. Tecnol. Futuro [online]. 2007, vol.3, n.3, pp. 51-70. ISSN 0122-5383.
A foreland basin is a dynamic system whose depositional systems migrate in response to changes in tectonic uplift patterns, sedimentary filling processes and isostatic rebound of the lithosphere. The Paleocene-middle Miocene foreland system of the Llanos foothills and Llanos basin of Colombia includes regional unconformities, abrupt changes in lithology/stacking patterns and flooding surfaces bounding reservoir and seal units. Here we integrate a systematic biostratigraphic study, stratal architecture and tectonic subsidence analyses, regional seismic profiles, and provenance data to define the diachronism of such surfaces and to document the direction of migration of foreland depozones. In a flexurally-deformed basin, sandstone composition, rates of accommodation and sediment supply vary across and along the basin. We show how a coeval depositional profile in the Llanos foothills-Llanos foreland basin consists of litharenites interbedded with mudstones (seal rock, supplied from the orogenic front to the west) that correlate cratonward with organic-rich mudstones and coal (source rock), and to amalgamated fluvial-estuarine quartzarenites (reservoir rock, supplied from the craton to the east) adjacent to a subaerial forebulge (unconformity). This system migrated northward and eastward during the Paleocene, westward during the early-middle Eocene, and eastward during the Oligocene. In the lower-middle Miocene succession of the Llanos basin, identification of flooding events indicates a westward encroaching of a shallow-water lacustrine system that covered an eastward-directed fluvial-deltaic system. A similar process has been documented in other basins in Venezuela and Bolivia, indicating the regional extent of such flooding event may be related to the onset of Andean-scale mountain-building processes.
Palabras llave : nonmarine foreland; sequence stratigraphy; Colombia; Andes; tectonics; depositional system; biostratigraphy analysis; subsidence; paleocene; miocene; Mirador formation; Barco formation; Llanos Orientales.