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Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria

Print version ISSN 0122-8706On-line version ISSN 2500-5308


FISCHER, Gerhard; MELGAREJO, Luz Marina  and  BALAGUERA-LOPEZ, Helber Enrique. Review on the impact of elevated CO2 concentrations on fruit species in the face of climate change. Cienc. Tecnol. Agropecuaria [online]. 2022, vol.23, n.2, e2475.  Epub Apr 31, 2022. ISSN 0122-8706.

Since the industrial revolution, anthropogenic activities have increased atmospheric CO2 concentration—one of the major causes of global warming—with a 600 to 700 ppm prediction by the end of this century. Orchards and vineyards are critical sustainable production systems that can minimize emissions and sequester carbon within the atmosphere. Information from different databases (i.e., ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, Google Academic, and ResearchGate) was assessed for this literature review. Generally, elevated CO2 (e-CO2) positively affected fruit trees, such as increased photosynthesis, efficient use of water, growth, and biomass. Therefore, in many cases, the yield and the quality of fruits also increased. With an e-CO2 of 600-750 ppm, most C3 plants will grow 30% faster. A total of 1,000 ppm of CO2 will be optimal for the photosynthesis of various plant species. Fruit trees typically grown in Colombia, such as citrus, grapevines, strawberry, papaya, and pitaya, would benefit from these positive effects, as e-CO2 alleviates stress due to drought and waterlogging. However, the increased growth of fruit trees due to e-CO2 requires more nutrients and water. Thus, selecting genotypes that benefit from e-CO2 and have high efficiency in using nitrogen and water is very important. Ideally, they must have a high sink strength to avoid the accumulation of carbohydrates in the chloroplast. The authors conclude that there is undoubtedly a “fertilization effect of CO2” on fruit species that increases with the advance of climate change. Still, much research is lacking for fruit species compared to many other crops. Hence, future studies are required to measure the direct effects of atmospheric e-CO2 and its interactions with environmental variables such as rainfall, temperature, soil moisture, and nutrient availability.

Keywords : Carbon dioxide; carbon dioxide enrichment; nitrogen; photosynthesis; sink strength; source sink relations; water use efficiency; fruit trees physiology.

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