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Revista de Medicina Veterinaria

Print version ISSN 0122-9354


ALVAREZ, Iván; URIBE, Alejandra  and  DUARTE, Sandra. Heart Failure Biomarkers in Small Animals. Rev. Med. Vet. [online]. 2012, n.24, pp.59-70. ISSN 0122-9354.

Traditionally, the evaluation of cardiac function is performed by electrocardiography, radiography and echocardiography for the assessment of patients with heart failure, which results not only from a volume or pressure overload, or from structural damage, but also from a complex interaction between genetics, inflammation, neurohormonal and biochemical factors acting on cardiac myocytes, cardiac interstitium or both. An increased number of enzymes, hormones, biological substances and other cardiac stress and malfunction markers, as well as myocyte damage can be measured in blood and are collectively referred to as biomarkers, which are clinically important. This review focused on biomarkers derived from blood or urine that are not the serum levels of hemoglobin, electrolytes, liver enzymes and creatinine, to be established as a routine part of clinical care for the diagnosis of heart diseases in small animals.

Keywords : Biomarkers; heart failure; small animals.

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