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Infectio

Print version ISSN 0123-9392

Abstract

RUEDA, César Mauricio; VELILLA, Paula Andrea  and  RUGELES, María Teresa. Immune regulation during Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection. Infect. [online]. 2009, vol.13, n.4, pp.268-282. ISSN 0123-9392.

During chronic infections, the immune regulation is an important mechanism to control inflammatory processes; however, the excessive regulation prevents the development of an appropriate effector immune response. The regulatory T cells (Treg), dendritic cells (DC) and some inhibitory molecules such as CTLA- 4, PD-1, IL-10, TGF-ß e IDO take part in the modulation of the immune response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Most of the evidence supports a negative effect of the immune regulation during both infections, due to the fact that they allow the active replication of the pathogens. The accumulation of functional Treg cells and the expression of these molecules have been associated with a compensating mechanism, in response to a cellular hyper-activation and to these microorganisms direct induction. During the co-infection, the HIV favors the reactivation of M.tb and the development of extra-pulmonary TB forms. The M.tb infection promotes the entry of the virus into target cells and its replication. Likewise, an increase of the immune hyper-activation state has been reported along with low effector responses. Although the immune-pathogenesis during the co-infection has not been extensively studied, most likely the pro-inflammatory and immunological hyper-activation state, typical of both infections, promotes the development of immune regulatory mechanisms that further disturb the balance between the protective and pathogenic responses during co-infection, favoring the illness severity.

Keywords : HIV; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; co-infection; immune regulation.

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