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Infectio

Print version ISSN 0123-9392

Abstract

OSORIO, Johanna et al. Pulmonary infections in patients with HIV, 20 years after combined antiretroviraltherapy. What has changed? . Infect. [online]. 2016, vol.20, n.3, pp.180-189. ISSN 0123-9392.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.infect.2015.08.002.

Background: Prior to 1996, HIV was considered practically fatal. However, after highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced, HIV became a chronic disease with a great increase in life expectancy. Despite this therapy, there are many complications to which an HIV infected person is exposed, with the lung the most commonly affected organ. Opportunistic infections such as pneumocystis pneumonia, histoplasmosis, tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria, among others, are still important threats to the HIV population. Objective: This review aims to address changes in the diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology of HIV-infected patients with lung infections since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced. Methodology: The electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, LILACS and SciELO were reviewed. Systematic reviews, randomised, controlled studies, case series, « before and after » ,observational studies from 1995 until December 2014 were included in addition to epidemiological data from the WHO. Conclusions: After nearly 20 years since its introduction, combined antiretroviral therapy has changed the natural history of HIV infection, with a decrease in the frequency of occurrence and mortality related to most pathogens involving the respiratory tract.

Keywords : Human immunodeficiency virus; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Highly active antiretroviral therapy; Lung; Opportunistic infections; Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

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