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Revista de Salud Pública

Print version ISSN 0124-0064


SISA, Ivan et al. Urinary sodium excretion in a young to middle-aged adult urban population: a pilot study in Ecuador. Rev. salud pública [online]. 2018, vol.20, n.5, pp.568-573. ISSN 0124-0064.


High sodium consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD is the leading cause of mortality in Ecuador, which may be caused in part by unhealthy eating habits. Currently, there are no data on the consumption of sodium using 24-hr urine samples. The aims of the study were to provide preliminary data of sodium intake in an urban population sample consisting of adults between 25 and 64 years old, and to explore the feasibility to conduct a population-level sodium intake determination by using 24-hr urine samples.


A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 129 adults living in an urban setting. 24-hr urinary samples were collected and the WHO STEPS instrument was used to collect the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of participants. A reference value of 2.0 g/day was used to differentiate between normal and high sodium intake groups.


Participants' median age was 39 years, 91% of them identified themselves as belonging to the mestizo race, and 60% were female. The average sodium intake was 2 655(±1 185) mg/d (range: 1 725 to 3 404), which is equivalent to a salt intake of 6.8 g/d (range: 4.4 to 8.7). Sodium intake was significantly higher in males than in females: 3 175(±1 202) mg/d vs. 2 304(±1 042) mg/d, respectively, (p<.01).


Sodium consumption in two-thirds of the participants was higher than the WHO recommended level. These results should help to support the execution of a national sodium intake survey that, in turn, would provide information to guide and plan public health strategies seeking to decrease cardiovascular diseases occurrence rates in Ecuador.

Keywords : Sodium; dietary; Ecuador; urine; cardiovascular diseases (source: MeSH, NLM).

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