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Actualidades Biológicas

versión impresa ISSN 0304-3584

Resumen

BARRERA-ARENAS, Lina Marcela; RESTREPO, Julieth; ORTIZ, León Darío  y  CAMARGO, Mauricio. Search for new genetic biomarkers in high-grade gliomas. Actu Biol [online]. 2019, vol.41, n.111, pp.23-31. ISSN 0304-3584.  http://dx.doi.org/10.17533/udea.acbi.v41n111a01.

High-grade gliomas are the most common brain tumors within central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms; they have an average survival of only 18 months, mainly due to their resistance to different therapeutic strategies. To date, the only treatment that has managed to improve in some months the survival of patients with these gliomas is the protocol designed by Stupp et al. (2005), which consists of surgery paired with adjuvant temozolamide (TMZ), and radiotherapy (RT). However, despite prolonging the life of patients up to 18 months, it still lacks a sensitive and/or specific prognostic value.

So far, there are only three molecular markers of clinical relevance for this disease; however, the National Institute of Health of the United States, detected a small group of individuals ("exceptional responders") that seem to have a longer survival associated with hypermethylation of the promoter of gene MGMT. Recent studies suggest that in “exceptional responders” there are other genetic factors not yet described involved in DNA damage repair.

In this review the use of DNA repair as a biomarker is suggested when patients with high-grade gliomas are treated with genotoxics TMZ and RT. Furthermore, three techniques that allow quantification of the genetic instability of these patients are detailed: detection of Micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes by Fenech method, detection of MN in peripheral blood reticulocytes by flow cytometry, and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE).

Palabras clave : diagnosis; genetics; prognosis; ADN repair; blood; predictive value of the tests.

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