SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.83 issue198An online algorithm for the container stacking problemContributions to the online fault diagnosis of interturn short circuit in three-phase induction motor by of means negative sequence components author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Article

Indicators

Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google

Share


DYNA

Print version ISSN 0012-7353

Dyna rev.fac.nac.minas vol.83 no.198 Medellín Sept. 2016

http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/dyna.v83n198.50065 

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/dyna.v83n198.50065

Marine safety: Asbestos in the maritime industry

Seguridad marítima: Asbestos en la industria marítima

 

José Ángel Fraguela-Formoso a, José Luís Fernández-Soto b, Pablo Fariñas-Alvariño a & Luís Carral-Couce a

 

a E.P.S. Ferrol. University of A Coruña, Spain. E-mail: jafraguela@udc.es, pfarina@udc.es, lcarral@udc.es
b Germanischer Lloyd Spain, Ltd., Spain. E-mail: jlfernandezsoto@gmail.com

 

Received: April 4th, 2015. Received in revised form: November 20th, 2015. Accepted: March 30th, 2016.

 

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Abstract
Over the last decade the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has highlighted the negative effect for human health of exposure to asbestos. The process they undertook has culminated in the amendment of the relevant SOLAS regulations. Changes came into force on January 1st, 2011; in these changes the new installation of asbestos containing materials (ACMs) on ships has been forbidden. This work analyses the evolution of the international regulations related to this change. The involvement of the implied parts (ship owners, shipyards, etc.) in the fulfillment of these standards, as well as the presence and treatment of these materials onboard are also considered.

Keywords: safety; ships; asbestos; removal; rules.

Resumen
En la última década la Organización Marítima Internacional (OMI) ha puesto de relieve el efecto negativo para la salud humana de la exposición al amianto. El proceso ha culminado con la modificación de los reglamentos pertinentes del Convenio SOLAS. Los cambios que entraron en vigor el 1 de enero de 2011 han prohibido la instalación de materiales que contengan asbesto en los buques. En este artículo se presta atención a la evolución de las regulaciones internacionales relacionadas con este. A bordo también se consideran la participación de las partes implicadas (armadores, astilleros, etc…) en el cumplimiento de estas normas, así como la presencia y el tratamiento de estos materiales.

Palabras clave: seguridad; buques; amianto; eliminación; normas.


 

1. Introduction

World Health Assembly Resolution 58.22 from 2005 on cancer prevention and control [1] urged Member States to pay special attention to cancers for which avoidable exposure is a factor, particularly exposure to chemicals at the workplace.

Worker exposure to asbestos occurs through inhalation. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 107.000 people die each year due to asbestos-related diseases from occupational exposure.

In terms of the European Community Directive 2009/148/EC [2], "asbestos" is understood to be the following group of fibrous silicates, identified by their number in the register of the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS): actinolite asbestos (CAS No. 77536-66-4), grunerite asbestos (amosite) (CAS No. 12172-73-5), anthophyllite asbestos (CAS No. 77536-67-5) chrysotile (CAS No. 12001-29-5), crocidolite (CAS No. 12001-28-4), and tremolite asbestos (CAS No. 77536-68-6). Chrysotile -also known as white asbestos- is the most commonly used (up to 90%), followed by crocidolite (blue asbestos), and then amosite (brown asbestos). The wide range of commercial applications of these materials is due to their excellent tensile strength, low thermal conductivity and significant resistance to chemical attack.

The maritime industry is concerned as the risk of being affected by the harmful effects of these materials not only lies with the people handling such materials during assembly, but also the crews that inhabit the ship during its operation. Even people from outside the ship (agents, inspectors, shipyard personnel, passengers, etc.) who occasionally visit facilities where such materials are present may be also affected.

To reduce risks of exposure, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), under SOLAS regulation II-1/3-5 [3], which has been in force since July 1st, 2002, prohibited any materials from being installed that containing asbestos on board a ship, except for some specific exceptional cases. This regulation must be applied to all materials used for the structure, machinery, electrical installations and equipment covered by the Convention. For ships built before that date, the presence of asbestos was allowed as long as its installation on board does not imply a risk for their crews' health. In addition, in the MSC/Circ.1045 [5] that was published the same year, a maintenance and supervision program of the ACM on a ship was established in order to minimize any person on board's exposure to asbestos fibers from.

Subsequently, successive amendments to the regulation [3] culminated in the prohibition, without exception, of the on board installation of asbestos containing materials; this has been in force since January 1st, 2011 [4].

However, despite this tightening of regulations, the IMO has identified serious contraventions, as stated in MSC.1/Circ. 1374 [6]. In some vessels certified as "asbestos free", dangerous materials have been found on board as a result of repairs having been carried out in shipyards or purchases of spare parts after the issuance of such certification.

Because of the serious risks to crewmembers, inspectors, and shipyard workers' health, every action must be taken to remove ACMs within a maximum of 3 years from the date found at which it was found on board. This task must be developed in close consultation with and be under the supervision of the Flag State concerned.

 

2. Impact of exposure to asbestos on health

Handling materials containing asbestos in assembly operations, cutting, maintaining, repairing and dismantling of facilities, etc., may rise asbestos fibers, which then remain suspended in the air. People present in the working area may then be at risk of inhaling these fibers.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified all asbestos fibers as "carcinogenic to humans". Asbestos is one of the most important occupational carcinogens, causing about half of all deaths from occupational cancer.

Asbestos is especially resistant to the internal defenses of the human body. Once inhaled and lodged inside the lungs, most fibers will not break up or dissolve, and they cannot be neutralized or removed. The most common asbestos related diseases are lung cancer, mesothelioma and asbestosis. Lung cancer is the major cause of death for workers exposed to inhaling asbestos. Its latency period is very long, as it manifests itself between 15 and 40 years after exposure. Mesothelioma is a malignant nodular cancer type in the membranes that line the lung cavity (80% in the pleura and 20% in the peritoneum). Generally, there is a latency period of 25 to 30 years. Asbestosis or pulmonary fibrosis is a thickening and scarring of lung tissue, which causes difficulty breathing. It usually has a latency period of 20 years.

There is no safe level of exposure to asbestos. The risk of occurrence of a disease associated with asbestos is related to the concentration of fibers in the air, exposure duration, exposure frequency, the size of inhaled fibers, and the elapsed time since the initial exposure. The higher the dose of exposure to asbestos, the greater the risk of asbestos related diseases. However, the amount of asbestos in a product is not necessarily related to an increased health risk.

According to the International Labour Office (ILO) [7], it is estimated that 4% of global gross domestic (incomings) product is lost in direct and indirect costs resulting from accidents, occupational diseases and deaths.

The dose-response related to asbestos exposure was not well known when this material was introduced into the industry. Thus, in Spain, in 1961 asbestosis was considered as the disease associated with exposure to asbestos; it was not recognized as carcinogen until 1978.

The regulation of occupational diseases is relatively recent. In Appendix III of [7], lung cancer and mesothelioma caused by asbestos appear as occupational diseases.

With European Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC [8], the EU aims to improve understanding of asbestos-related diseases. Preventive guides for exposed workers are also given and it tries to relate the dose-response between exposure to a particular agent and disease. Annex I presents mesothelioma, pleura fibrotic diseases with respiratory restriction, and lung cancer, as well as diseases caused by inhaling asbestos dust. Annex II deals with lung cancer.

Directive 2009/148/EC [2] assumes that, in addition to the above, diseases such as bronchial carcinoma and gastro-intestinal carcinoma may also be associated with exposure to asbestos.

International medical research has concluded that there is no level of exposure to asbestos below which clinical effects do not occur. The risks associated with low levels of cumulative exposure are, so far, not well known. Since asbestos fibers do accumulate in the lungs, and since the risk of developing disease does increase as the cumulative dose increases, exposure to asbestos should be controlled or avoided whenever possible.

According to the International Ban Asbestos Secretariat (IBAS), the use of asbestos is forbidden in 54 countries throughout the world, most of them industrialized; however, it is still extensively used in emerging countries.

 

3. The influence of international standards on preventive asbestos actions

According to the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), Industrial Hygiene is a science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, prevention, and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace. These may cause sickness, impaired health and well being, or create significant discomfort among workers or citizens in the community.

In the Industrial Hygiene field, preventive techniques are applied to the technical and human factors present in the workplace. However, those techniques can only be applied in accordance with up-to-date knowledge on the harmful effects of the materials used in a particular industrial process on people.

International laws consider aspects related to restrictions on the trading and use of certain dangerous substances [9-12], asbestos measurement methods and assessment in workplaces [13-15], analysis [14,16-18] as well as prevention and protection of workers exposed to this risk [19-25].

European Directive 2003/18/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to asbestos at work [24] contains the following elements: general provisions of employer obligations, exposure limits and prohibitions, evaluation and control of working environments, general organization and technical measures for prevention, personal hygiene, personal protection equipment for respiratory specific situations and certain activities, development and processing of working plans and training, information, consultation, participation, and monitoring of workers health.

This directive includes the maintenance, repair and removal of existing asbestos containing materials in equipment, units (such as ships), facilities and structures.

Worker exposure is allowed up to a concentration of airborne asbestos at or below the Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) of 0.1 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cm3), as an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA).

Since January 1st, 2011, the new installation of materials containing asbestos has been prohibited for all ships covered by SOLAS Convention, and, consequently, the PEL has been limited to 0.0 f/cm3 onboard vessels.

The present restricted exposure levels have been reached based on the results obtained by medical research into asbestos-related diseases, which has strongly recommended reducing exposure levels. EU countries have followed this tendency over the last 50 years. As a matter of comparative interest, in Spain, the original permissible exposure level in 1961 was 175 f/cm3 for all varieties of asbestos. In 1982 it was reduced to 2.0 f/cm3. In 1984 the PEL was once again reduced to 1.0 f/cm3 for all varieties except for crocidolite or blue asbestos, the latter having been reduced to 0.0 f/cm3 for. In 1993, the PEL was fixed at 0.6 f/cm3 for chrysotile, 0.3 f/cm3 for other varieties, and 0.0 f/cm3 for crocidolite or blue asbestos. Although the PEL is now fixed at 0.1 f/cm3 in a working environment, there are still an estimated significant number of between 3 and 4 asbestos-related deaths per 1000 workers.

 

4. Presence of ACMs on board ships

Due to the particular characteristics of asbestos, its most frequent applications on board ships are the following: bulkhead and deck insulation (blankets, panels and sprayed insulation); wall and ceiling panels (sandwich type); floating floors; floor tiles; cement, adhesive-like glue (e.g., mastics) and fillers; packing in pipe/cable penetrations; seals and sealing putty; gaskets (in pipe flanges and manhole covers of tanks); strings fastening insulation around valves in pipes; textile fabric in HVAC ducts as vibration dampener material; boiler insulation; steam pipe insulation; exhaust duct insulation; vanes used in rotary vane compressors; vanes used in rotary vane vacuum pumps; electrical cable material and fuses; friction material of brakes; paintings; fire blankets.

Since the largest amount of ACMs on board are installed as bulkhead/deck/pipe insulation, the most common places in which this material can be found is in the accommodation (or living area) and in the engine room.

Asbestos containing materials can be classified into two categories: friable and non-friable. The friable ACMs have their fibers weakly bound and, when dry, can be easily crumbled, pulverized and reduced to powder by hand pressure. When these microscopic mineral fibers are released into the air, human health can be negatively impacted via inhalation.

This type of asbestos is commonly used as insulation on exhaust pipes, as insulation in blanket forms on bulkheads and decks, as a rope for fastening isolation around valves, and as the filling material in wall and ceiling panels [Figs. 2 and 3]. The effect of typical vessel vibrations can cause the small fibers arising from asbestos or ACMs to remain suspended in the air.

In the following void spaces on ships, the content of fibers or asbestos dust in the air is likely to be high: the backside of partition walls in front of bulkheads; the space between partition walls; the space between ceilings and upper decks; the space between floating floors and decks; and inside escape trunks.

As these spaces are not for regular crew access, they are usually not ventilated and friable ACMs with no cover are used in them. With ship vibrations, the fibers tend to release accumulating asbestos inside these spaces and create hazardous atmospheres that pose a serious risk when opening walls, ceilings or floors.

Moreover, non-friable ACMs are characterized by greater compactness of their fibers. Due to this, they cannot be simply pulverized by hand pressure. Hence, their level of danger to health is lower than for the friable, non-releasing fibers with the ship vibrations.

However, the non-friable asbestos can become friable and release fibers into the air when it are subjected to mechanical works such as sanding, cutting, grinding, drilling, especially when these are carried out with inadequate tools, or when they are burned or welded [Figs. 4 and 5].

This type of asbestos is often used as gaskets in pipe flanges and as manhole covers of tanks, in floor tiles (see Fig. 4), and paintings. The packing used in cable penetrations (see Fig. 5) and pipe penetrations is also non-friable.

 

5. Treatment of materials on board

In order to study the treatment and control of ACMs on board a ship, we will distinguish between two different cases:

  1. Ships containing ACMs that do not breach the SOLAS regulation II-1/3-5 [3], either because they were constructed before July 1st, 2002 and their ACMs do not pose a risk to the crew's health, or because, having being built later, the ACMs are on the list of the exceptions allowed by the regulation issued on that date.
  2. Vessels that contain ACMs on-board, are breaching the SOLAS regulations II-1/3-5. This means ships built on or after July 1st, 2002 and that contain ACMs not covered by the exceptions of this rule, or those ships built on or after January 1st, 2011 and that contain any type of ACMs on board, are clearly in contravention of [4].

In compliance with MSC/Circ.1045 [5], which was dated on May 28th, 2002, ships belonging to group I should implement in their Safety Management System (developed in compliance with the ISM Code) a maintenance and control of ACMs program on board in order to minimize the exposure to asbestos of any person on board (passengers, crew, port stevedores, surveyors, etc.) while the vessel is "in service". The shipping company must identify and locate the presence of ACMs on board and make an assessment of their condition. This assessment is to be completed using an evaluation checklist shown in Circular Appendix 1 in Annex 1. This includes the materials accessibility, their protection characteristics, their degree of degradation, their exposure to shocks and vibration, and the presence of air currents in the area. Then, using Appendix 2 in Annex 1, a diagnosis of the conservation state of these materials shall be drawn up. Based on this diagnosis, the materials will be subject to a periodic check of the conservation state, to a monitoring of asbestos dust levels in the surrounding area, and to on board protection, repairing, or removal works.

When the material conservation or the asbestos fiber levels into the air make it appropriate, the following precautions are necessary: control (abatement actions) fiber release (friable asbestos) and maintain a safe health environment without resorting to remove onboard material. These actions include:

  • Enclose asbestos in some airtight material. This could be a plastic wrapping taped over steam pipes, a new floor over an existing one, a steel plate put up over the exposed fibers of an insulation panel, etc.
  • Encapsulate asbestos in a material that will solidify and make them it friable. This strategy only works when the surface of the ACM is slightly porous. A penetrating material should be used for the first layer. The finished material should be sprayed on rather than rolled or brushed to reduce the chances of altering the asbestos.

None of these methods should be used as a substitute for asbestos dismantling and removal in the case that it is in an advanced state of deterioration. They should be used only when asbestos is in a good state of repair.

Ships in group II are generally those that either, as a result of a repair made in a country where the asbestos is not prohibited, or an error in the provision of spare parts for the ship, have ACMs on board. The SOLAS regulation II-1/3-5 [4] is therefore broken. In this case, and according to MSC.1/Circ.1374 [6], the removal of such materials must be made within a period not exceeding 3 years from the date at which the infringement was detected. This action must be developed under the guidance and supervision of the Flag State.

 

6. Asbestos removal and recycling

Due to the danger in the direct contact with ACMs, asbestos dismantling and removal should be conducted by specialized companies that handling these materials, or by shipyard workers who have received special training.

Asbestos is listed in Annex VIII (List A) of the Basel Convention [26], and it is considered a hazardous waste for health, and therefore, should not be re-used or re-cycled. The potential health impacts associated with the use of ACMs are of such a serious nature that it is necessary to take extreme caution when drawing and handling these materials. Precautions include: protection of workers when removing asbestos from the vessel; management of asbestos as waste; and measures to prevent asbestos from being used in other applications.

It is recommended that shipyards belonging to countries whose national laws do not address the above precautions implement a management plan for asbestos in their waste management plan. This plan will include an inventory of ACMs on board the vessel so that they can be located, quantified and identified before being removed (instead of extracting samples for analysis in a laboratory of all materials suspected of containing asbestos, it might be more feasible and economical to assume that such materials contain asbestos). In addition, this plan should include personal protective equipment (PPE) for workers removing the material and procedures for both removal and disposal. National legislation should determine the maximum permissible exposure levels (PEL).

Workers involved in the removal and management of ACMs will have to use certified personal protective equipment (PPE) with appropriate respiratory protective equipment (RPE) as well as protective clothing such as overalls, gloves and head coverings, face shield or vented goggles, and appropriate footwear. To comply with the rules of hygiene at work, the yard should have decontamination areas, equipped with a room to leave the equipment and work clothes, a shower area, and a dining room.

In asbestos extraction or removal works on a ship it is essential to keep the asbestos wet during such operations in order to avoid dispersion of fibers into the air. Thus, in this type of work, two people should be involved: one will ensure that asbestos is wet during removal, and the other one will be in charge of the extraction work.

The ACMs removed from a vessel will be introduced in airtight containers with lids and labeled for the transport to the disposal area. Generally, the ACMs are disposed of in landfills where they are buried underground.

 

7. Actions to be taken by the port state control inspectors (PSC) and classification society surveyors

MSC.1/Circ.1374 [6] underlines the importance of the proper training of inspectors/surveyors in the identification of ACMs on board ships. Asbestos can be found throughout ships from the top of the bridge to the bilge. Identifying the location and type of asbestos and assessing its condition involve qualified inspectors/surveyors. They should know the precautions to be taken in the presence of this material and should also be trained in taking samples.

As in many cases when there are suspicions that a particular material may contain asbestos (see Fig. 8), the visual identification of asbestos is not easy. If sampling and analysis of such material by experts cannot be conducted, both crew and inspectors/surveyors should consider the material to be an ACM in order to avoid possible health risks.

In the aforementioned Circular it is also recommended that inspectors make sure that whenever a new material is installed on board, it is delivered with a statement of compliance with a SOLAS regulation II-1/3-5, or similar. This may take the form of an "asbestos free declaration".

The following precautions should be adhered to if inspectors/surveyors have to undertake their work on a ship on which repairs or other work such as grinding, welding or blasting is being carried out, and consequently, friable and non-friable ACMs may be affected.

  • Do not enter in those atmospheres that may contain asbestos fiber concentrations in suspension until they have been properly ventilated. To ensure that the level of fibers in the air is within the levels permitted by local laws, measurements will be taken by experts.
  • The inspectors/surveyors will carry a particle filtering half mask and disposable overalls as PPE to protect themselves in case they walk in an area containing high levels of asbestos fibers. In this case, the PPE will be used to leave immediately the area.
  • The above PPE should not be ever considered as protective equipment for inspectors/surveyors who intend to enter a contaminated area and stay there performing their inspection work. Entry into these spaces will be reserved for specialized companies.
  • Sampling and analysis of ACMs will be left to experts. The analysis of a sample to detect whether it is an ACM or not should be performed in a laboratory.

 

8. Conclusions

Research in recent years on the health effects of workers' exposure to asbestos has shown that this is a carcinogenic material and, therefore, poses a serious risk to health. As most industrialized countries have becoming aware of this, they have regulated the use of this material, which has had drastic reductions in the permissible level of exposure (PEL). This pattern of reduction in both the level of exposure and the use of these materials in the industry is the expected trend in the coming years.

In the field of shipping, the recent appearance of ACMs on ships certified as "asbestos free" has made alarms bells ring out, pushing the IMO to take a decisive step with their prohibition of the new installation of ACMs on board all ships on January 1st, 2011. In the fulfillment of this new regulation ship-owners will play a key role. Asbestos will have a significant entry path into the vessels through shipyard repairs or purchases of spare parts in countries that are not Member States of the IMO or whose national laws do not control the use of these materials. Therefore, in these cases, it is the ship-owners responsibility to be alert and to prevent asbestos from accessing their ships.

Owners of vessels that contain asbestos (vessels belonging to group I of item 5) will have to identify their type and location, assess their condition, and comply with a maintenance and control program. The friable ACMs are the most dangerous and the tendency is to wrap them into other material or encapsulate them while they are in an acceptable condition and then remove them from the ship when they deteriorate. Thus, void spaces on the backside of partition walls and above ceilings are areas likely to contain high concentration of airborne fibers, this being a considerable potential risk.

Inspectors/surveyors obtaining proper qualifications to be able to identify asbestos is another crucial point in tackling the challenge of getting ships asbestos free. Once identified on board, a professional decision should be taken as to whether to remove, encapsulate, or leave the asbestos undisturbed. If samples are taken, they shall be subsequently analyzed in duly equipped laboratories.

Captains and officers must know and be concerned about the importance of the presence of asbestos on board. Crews and workers on board should take into account authorities' recommendations. It is the responsibility of captains and officers to inform crew and workers as they sometimes do not have complete information regarding asbestos.

Asbestos removal operations requires the preparation of specific working protocols, workers specially trained and informed of the risks they are exposed to, and finally, its treatment by managers trained in hazardous wastes. The flag State of the vessel surveyors must be involved in its removal.

Despite great advances over the last decade, the war against asbestos in the maritime sector will not be won until there is full global commitment for asbestos control from all stakeholders, especially from the governments of the least developed countries.

A SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) permits the strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities, of the implementation of the measures contained in Table 1 to be determined.

According to previous analysis, it is possible to determine the most appropriate strategies to reach a successful conclusion of the IMO rules.

Offensive strategies (strengths & opportunities): Assumption by ship-owners, shipyards, the MOU surveyors and operators, goodness and necessity of implementation of these preventive measures.

Defensive strategy (weaknesses & threats): with the conviction that these preventive measures will favor the health of crews, it will be possible to conduct risk assessments for exposure to asbestos, specific medical examinations in shipyard workers, crews and surveyors, and monitor the implementation of preventive measures.

Reorientation strategy (weaknesses & opportunities): the change in the provisions of the IMO should be used to manage these risks by all parties, and in particular by carriers with international information systems on improving the management of their vessels.

Survival Strategy (weaknesses & threats): the steps initiated by the IMO confirmed that there was a bad situation in terms of working conditions with asbestos. It is necessary to exploit the MSC.1/Cir.1374 II-1/3-5 and promote a change in the way of thinking, working procedures, and the use of new available materials that do not contain asbestos. Maritime organizations' sanction capabilities of IMO member states should be fully exploited.

 

References

[1] WHO, Summary Consensus Report of WHO Workshop on mechanisms of fibre carcinogenesis and assessment of chrysotile asbestos substitutes, Lyon, France. Geneve, World Health Organitation, 8-12 November.2005.         [ Links ]

[2] European Union, Directive 2009/148/EC of the European Parlament and of the Council on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work, 30.11. 2009.         [ Links ]

[3] SOLAS, regulation II-1/3-5, New installation of materials containing asbestos, July1st. 2002.         [ Links ]

[4] SOLAS, regulation II-1/3-5, New installation of materials containing asbestos, January1st. 2011.         [ Links ]

[5] International Maritime Organization (IMO). MSC/Circ.1045, Guidelines for maintenance and monitoring of on-board materials containing asbestos, 28.05.2002.         [ Links ]

[6] International Maritime Organization (IMO), MSC.1/Circ.1374, Information on prohibiting the use of asbestos on board ships, 03.12.2010.         [ Links ]

[7] International Labour Office Geneva, International Labour Conference, 90. to Session 2002, Report V (1), Recording and reporting of accidents work and occupational diseases and ILO list occupational diseases, Geneva. 2001        [ Links ]

[8] European Union, Commission Recommendation 2003/670/EC of 19 September 2003 on the European list of occupational diseases [Notified under document number C (2003) 3297] (Text with EEA relevance), Official Journal L 238, 25.09.2003.         [ Links ]

[9] European Union, Directive 76/769/EEC Council of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations, OJ L 262, 27.9.1976.         [ Links ]

[10] European Union, Council Directive 83/478/EEC of 19 September 1983 amending for the fifth time (asbestos) Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations. OJ L 263, 24.9.1983.         [ Links ]

[11] European Union, Commission Directive 91/659/EEC of 3 December 1991 adapting to technical progress Annex I to Council Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (asbestos), OJ L 363, 31.12.1991.         [ Links ]

[12] European Union, Commission Directive 1999/77/EC of 26 July 1999 adapting to technical progress for the sixth time Annex I to Council Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (asbestos), Official Journal of the European Communities 6. 8. 1999        [ Links ]

[13] Asbestos International Association (A.I.A.), Reference method for the determination of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations at workplaces by ligth microscopy (Membrane filter method). Recommended technical method number 1. 1982.         [ Links ]

[14] Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales de España. MTA/MA-051/A04, Determinación de fibras de amianto y otras fibras en aire. Método del filtro de membrana. Microscopía óptica de contraste de fases. (Método multifibra).         [ Links ]

[15] Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales de España. Criterio/Recomendación CR-02/2005. Medida fiable de las concentraciones de fibras de amianto en aire. Aplicación del método de toma de muestras y análisis MTA/MA-051/A04.         [ Links ]

[16] National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Analysis method 7400. Asbestos fibres. 1984.         [ Links ]

[17] Schlecht., P.C. and Shulman, S.A., Performance of asbestos fiber counting laboratories in the NIOSH proficiency analytical testing (PAT) program, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 47(5), pp 259-269, 1986. DOI: 10.1080/15298668691389748        [ Links ]

[18] Baron, P.A., Shulman, S.A., Evaluation of the magiscan image analyzer for asbestos fiber counting, American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 48, pp. 39-46,1987. DOI: 10.1080/15298668791384346        [ Links ]

[19] European Union, Council Directive 83/477/EEC of 19 September 1983 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work (second individual Directive within the meaning of Article 8 of Directive 80/1107/EEC), Official Journal L 263, 24.09.1983.         [ Links ]

[20] European Union, Council Directive 90/394/CE, of 28 June 1990 on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work (Sixth individual Directive under paragraph 1 of Article 16 of Directive 89/391/EEC), Official Journal L 196, 26.07.1990.         [ Links ]

[21] European Union, Council Directive 97/42/EC of 27 June 1997 amending for the first time Directive 90/394/EEC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work (Sixth individual Directive under paragraph 1 of Article 16 of Directive 89/391/EEC), Official Journal L 179, 08.07.1997.         [ Links ]

[22] European Union, Directive 1999/38/EC of 29 April 1999 the second time Directive 90/394/EEC on the protection of workers from exposure to carcinogens at work and extending it to mutagens, Official Journal L 138.OJ. 1.6.1999        [ Links ]

[23] European Union, Council Directive 91/382/EEC of 25 June 1991 amending Directive 83/477/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work (second individual Directive within the meaning of Article 8 of Directive 80/1107/EEC), OJ L 206, p. 16-18. 29.7.1991        [ Links ]

[24] European Union, Directive 2003/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 March 32003 amending Council Directive 83/477/EC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to asbestos at work (Text with EEA relevance) OJ L 97, 15.4.2003        [ Links ]

[25] International Labour Organisation (ILO). C162 Convention, concerning Safety in the Use of Asbestos. 1986.         [ Links ]

[26] United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal, Sixth meeting, Geneva, 9-13.12.2002.         [ Links ]

 

L.M.Carral-Couce holds a PhD. in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering from the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Technical Univ. of Madrid) and a MSc.in Maritime Law and Port Administration from the University of Coruna, Spain. He has worked in the former navy shipyard of Bazan (now Navantia) prior to entering the EPS-Ferrol at the University of Coruna, Spain, as a Professor. At the University he is part of the GII (a multidisciplinary research group) and he has promoted several Masters' degrees such as Design, Production and Inspection of Motor and Sailing Craft, and Transport & Logistics. He has also been Chairman of the Spanish Association of Naval Architects in the region of Galicia for several years. ORCID 0000 - 0003 - 1109 - 1131

J.A. Fraguela-Formoso, PhD in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineer from the Polytechnic University of Madrid, is Professor at the University of A Coruña, Spain. Quality deputy director of the Polytechnic School of the University of A Coruña. Director Course at Second University Cycle of the University of A Coruña Degree in Management of Prevention, Quality and Environment, from 2000 to 2010. Creator, Organizer and Director 10 Masters in Prevention Labor risks of the University of a Coruña, two of them in Ibero America. Creator, Organizer and Manager 7 Masters in Integrated Quality Management, Environment and Occupational Health and Safety at the University of A Coruña. He has been head of the Services Occupational Health and Safety and Occupational Health at the National Military Bazán company Construcciones Navales S.A. Ferrol. Chairman of ENOGA (Association of Enxeñeiros Navais and Oceania Galicia), IPEN-SPAIN (Pan American Institute of Naval Engineering). Member of the Advisory Council of IPEN-AMERICAS. Member of the Editorial Board of IPEN digital JOURNAL (ISSN 1011-5951) of the Pan American Institute of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering. ORCID 0000-0002-5308-387X

P. Fariñas-Alvariño, is PhD. Naval Architect and Marine Engineer from Universidade da Coruña, Spain, since 2004. He has been professor in Heat Engines, Fluid Mechanics and Shipbuilding. Currently he is professor of naval hydrodynamics and computational hydrodynamics. Develops research work in transport phenomena in fluids focused mainly to energy transport. In recent years he has developed own models for CFD study of nanotechnology applied to fluid mechanics for the study of suspensions. ORCID 0000-0002-9598-5249

J.L. Fernández-Soto, is PhD. Naval Architect and Marine Engineer from the University of La Coruna, has developed its activity in the EN Bazán (Navantia) and is now surveyor of the company DNV - GL. ORCID 0000 - 0002 - 9807 - 2007

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License