versión impresa ISSN 0120-0690
Rev Colom Cienc Pecua v.18 n.3 Medellín jul./sep. 2005
OIE: new animal disease notification system Notifying infectious animal diseases to the OIE
ProMED-mail. OIE: new animal disease notification system; ProMED-mail 2005; Fri, 15 Jul 2005 14:24:06 -0400 (EDT)
The OIE (Office International des Epizooties, World Organization for Animal Health, headquartered in Paris, France) is an intergovernmental organization created by an International Agreement in 1924. In May 2004, the OIE totaled 167 member Countries. (List of Member Countries:
One of the main missions of the OIE is provide information on the world animal health situation in all transparency.
In order to fulfill its mandate in this respect, the OIE manages the world animal health information system, based on the commitment of Member Countries to notify the OIE the occurrence of main animal diseases, including zoonoses. In May 2004, OIE member countries approved the creation of a single list of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases; previously, diseases notifiable to the OIE were classified into 2 lists, List A and List B, the former being of higher priority. It was agreed that the change will necessitate defining acceptable criteria for the inclusion of a disease in the OIE single list, as well as criteria for the degree of urgency of each reporting.
OIEs Director General, while announcing the decision (see 20040516.1319), reiterated that the implementation of the changes will mean completely redesigning the existing animal health information system, which will need to take full advantage of all the possibilities offered by the latest information and communication technology, including mapping software. He convened an Ad hoc Group on Terrestrial Animal Disease/Pathogenic Agent Notification, comprised of international experts, to support the OIE Animal Health Information Department in defining criteria to determine whether a given disease should be included in the OIE list.
The Ad hoc Groups report*, including the proposed revised single list and explanatory notes pertaining to each disease retained, added or deleted were discussed by the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission in January 2005 and forwarded to the General Session of the Member Countries (the International Committee), by which it was finally approved in May 2005.
The new system prescribes 4 main reporting modes: immediate notification, follow-up report, 6-monthly report and annual report. Their performance is prescribed according to the following modalities:
1. An immediate notification, to warn and alert the international community of exceptional epidemiological events in Member Countries. In order to improve the scope and the efficiency of the OIE Early Warning System, the events of epidemiological significance that should be covered in the immediate notification have been redefined and are the following:
a. the first occurrence of an OIE-listed disease or infection in a country or zone/compartment;
b. the re-occurrence of a listed disease or infection in a country or zone/compartment following a report by the Delegate of the Member Country declaring the previous outbreak(s) eradicated;
c. the 1st occurrence of a new strain of a pathogen of a listed disease in a country or zone/ compartment thereof;
d. a sudden and unexpected increase in morbidity or mortality caused by an existing listed disease;
e. an emerging disease with significant morbidity/ mortality or zoonotic potential;
f. evidence of change in the epidemiology of a listed disease (e.g. host range, pathogenicity, strain of causative pathogen), in particular if there is a zoonotic impact. This alert system is aimed at the Veterinary Services of Member Countries, enabling them to take any necessary protective measures as quickly as possible to prevent the introduction of pathogens originating from infected countries.
2. Follow-up report on a weekly basis, subsequent to a notification under point 1 above, to provide further information on the evolution of an incident which justified an immediate notification; the follow-up reports should continue until the situation has been resolved through either the disease being eradicated or it becoming endemic so that 6-monthly reporting under point 3 will satisfy the obligation of the country to the OIE. In any case, a final report on the incident should be submitted.
3. A 6-monthly report on the evolution, absence or presence of all the diseases listed by the OIE and information of epidemiological significance to other countries. (Previously, monthly reports, relating to List A diseases only either present or absent in the country were required; this is not the case anymore).
4. An annual questionnaire concerning any other information of significance to other countries.
More details on these procedures and the relevant obligations of the OIE Member Countries are to be found in Chapter 1.1.2 of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code: <http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/mcode/ en_chapitre_1.1.2.htm>.
Maintaining a disease previously included in list A or B in the new single list, deleting it or adding a new disease to the list, have been decided upon according to a decision-making model which was based upon 4 basic criteria:
a. International spread;
b. Significant spread within naive populations;
c. Zoonotic potential;
d. Emerging diseases.
Each disease was first evaluated in terms of its potential for international spread; a disease passing this test had to show zoonotic potential with severe consequences or a high impact at country or zonal level, in order to be included. Emerging diseases had to show zoonotic potential in order to be added. The decision-making model and the decision tree applied are laid-out in Article 2.1.1. of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code <http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/ mcode/en_chapitre_2.1.1.htm>.
Following a revision, in line with the said criteria, of the existing lists A and B and an assessment of several emerging diseases which have been proposed by OIE Member Countries, the Ad hoc Group recommended to delete some diseases from the list, add several emerging diseases, change the names of some and change the species category of others (for details, see the report*).
The single list, as finally approved by the International Committee, is included in Article 184.108.40.206. of the Code, as follows:
The following diseases are included in the OIE List.
1) The following diseases are included within the category of multiple species diseases:
Brucellosis (_Brucella abortus_)
Brucellosis (_Brucella melitensis_)
Brucellosis (_Brucella suis_)
Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever
Foot and mouth disease
Heartwater Japanese encephalitis
New world screwworm (_Cochliomyia hominivorax_)
Old world screwworm (_Chrysomya bezziana_)
Rinderpest Rift Valley fever
West Nile fever.
2) The following diseases are included within the category of cattle diseases:
Bovine genital campylobacteriosis
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
Bovine viral diarrhoea
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
Enzootic bovine leukosis
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis
Lumpy skin disease
Malignant catarrhal fever
3) The following diseases are included within the category of sheep and goat diseases:
Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia
Enzootic abortion of ewes (ovine chlamydiosis)
Nairobi sheep disease
Ovine epididymitis (_Brucella ovis_)
Peste des petits ruminants
Salmonellosis (_S. abortusovis_)
Sheep pox and goat pox.
4) The following diseases are included within the category of equine diseases:
African horse sickness
Contagious equine metritis
Equine encephalomyelitis (Eastern)
Equine encephalomyelitis (Western)
Equine infectious anaemia
Equine viral arteritis
Surra (_Trypanosoma Evansi_).
Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis.
5) The following diseases are included within the category of swine diseases:
African swine fever
Classical swine fever
Nipah virus encephalitis
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
Swine vesicular disease
6) The following diseases are included within the category of avian diseases:
Avian infectious bronchitis
Avian infectious laryngotracheitis
Avian mycoplasmosis (_M. gallisepticum_)
Avian mycoplasmosis (_M. Synoviae_)
Duck virus hepatitis
Highly pathogenic avian influenza
Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease)
7) The following diseases are included within the category of lagomorph diseases:
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease.
8) The following diseases are included within the category of bee diseases:
Acarapisosis of honey bees
American foulbrood of honey bees
European foulbrood of honey bees
Small hive beetle infestation (_Aethina tumida_)
Tropilaelaps infestation of honey bees
Varroosis of honey bees.
9) The following diseases are included within the category of other diseases:
(* Appendix XXVIII : Report of the OIE Ad-hoc Group on Diseases/Pathogenic agents notification on a new list of terrestrial animal diseases.
(pages 495-515 in the Report of OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Standards Commission/January 2005).