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Agronomía Colombiana

Print version ISSN 0120-9965

Agron. colomb. vol.37 no.1 Bogotá Jan/Apr. 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.15446/agron.colomb.v37n1.76859 

Protección de cultivos

A first approach to chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) of the entomological museum UNAB with new records for Colombia

Primera aproximación al conocimiento de las avispas calcídidas (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae) del Museo Entomológico UNAB con nuevos reportes para Colombia

Alba Lucía Pérez-Benavides1  , Francisco Serna1  * 

1 Museo Entomológico UNAB, Sistemática de Insectos Agronomía, SIA, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá (Colombia).

ABSTRACT

The entomological museum of Universidad Nacional, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Bogota, (UNAB) Colombia, conserves several arthropod collections. These collections are considered of great interest to several agricultural and silvicultural production systems in the eastern Andes and the nearby Amazon region (Caqueta and Putumayo provinces) of the country. As a contribution to the knowledge of the diversity of parasitoid wasps associated to agroecosystems (cacao in agroforestry systems, mainly) of these geographical areas, the current research presents a first approach to the study of Chalcididae wasps at this museum. The curatorial status was organized, the represented genera identified, and the geographic occurrences in extension and altitude graphically represented. The Central Taxonomic Collection (CTC) is the main collection at UNAB. It contains 214 specimens of the family Chalcididae that correspond to the genera Brachymeria, Conura, Dirhinus, Haltichella, Notaspidium, Stypiura, Ecuada, and Parastypiura, with records from 17 provinces. The genera Ecuada and Parastypiura, as well as 11 species of Conura, are recorded for the country for the first time.

Key words: neotropics; taxonomy; geographic occurrence; agroecosystems; parasitoids

RESUMEN

El museo entomológico de la Universidad Nacional Agronomía Bogotá (UNAB) en Colombia contiene colecciones de artrópodos de importancia en sistemas de producción agrícola y silvícola, provenientes en su mayoría de las regiones de los Andes orientales y la Amazonia cercana del país. Como aporte al conocimiento de la diversidad de avispas parasitoides asociadas a agroecosistemas (cacao en agroforestería, principalmente) de estas áreas geográficas, el presente trabajo presenta una primera aproximación al estudio de las avispas Chalcididae de este museo. Se organizó el estatus curatorial, los géneros representados fueron identificados, y las ocurrencias geográficas en extensión y altitud gráficamente representadas. La Colección Taxonómica Central (CTC) del museo UNAB cuenta con 214 especímenes de la familia, que corresponden a los géneros Brachymeria, Conura, Dirhinus, Ecuada, Haltichella, Notaspidium, Parastypiura y Stypiura, con registros para 17 departamentos. Los géneros Ecuada y Parastypiura, así como 11 especies de Conura se registran por primera vez para el país.

Palabras-clave: neotrópico; taxonomía; ocurrencia geográfica; agroecosistemas; parasitoides

Introduction

The family Chalcididae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) contains 1,469 described species including 90 genera (Noyes, 2017). The family is cosmopolitan in distribution, with a higher diversity found in Neotropical lowlands (Delvare and Boucek, 1992; Delvare, 1995), from where 23 genera and 472 species are known (Noyes, 2017). Colombia has five registered subfamilies, including Chalcidinae, Dirhininae, Epitraninae, Haltichellinae, and Smicromorphinae (Boucek, 1988; Delvare, 2004; Noyes, 2017).

Recent studies regarding diversity recognition of Chalcididae from Colombia were carried out under the "Colombia Biodiversa" project (NSF, 2006), cataloging a total of 54 species and nine (9) morphospecies belonging to the following 13 genera: Aspirrhina, Brachymeria, Conura, Dirhinus, Halsteadium, Haltichella, Hockeria, Hontalia, Melanosmicra, Notaspidium, Psilochalcis, Stypiura, and Trigonura. Likewise, several checklists of Chalcididae from the country have been compiled (Arias and Delvare, 2003; Arias, 2004; Delvare and Arias, 2005). Recently, Noyes (2017) made the Universal Chalcidoidea Database available online, reporting 64 species within nine genera from the country, including the genera Ceyxia, Pilismicra and Zavoya, which were not documented previously.

The entomological museum UNAB (Universidad Nacional Agronomia Bogota) started in 2001 (Vergara et al., 2008; Serna et al., 2017). This museum preserves several arthropod collections of interest to agriculture and forestry production systems mainly from the eastern Andes and nearby Amazon regions from Colombia. It contains approximately 180,000 specimens, including 153,000 pinned or point mounted, 10,430 slide-mounted, 18,400 larvae preserved in ethanol, and 96 Type specimens (Serna et al., 2017). The main objective of this study was to make a first approach to the status of the Chalcididae taxa represented in the UNAB entomological museum, depicting its geographical occurrence.

Materials and methods

Curatorial procedures followed the ones published by Borror et al. (1989) and the methodology used was the one established at UNAB by Vergara et al. (2008), Martínez and Serna (2015), Malagón-Aldana et al. (2017), and Pérez-Benavides et al. (2016, 2017). Specimens were point mounted, labeled with information regarding hosts and taxonomic identification, and incorporated into ward boxes with a green cardboard label containing the corresponding taxon name and a catalog number [UNAB #]. Specimen data were digitalized in Excel, including the taxonomy, ecology, and geographical information. Ward boxes containing the specimens were placed into Cornell drawers and compactor shelving cabinets at the Central Taxonomic Collection (CTC).

Morphological characters were studied using a NIKON SMZ-1 stereomicroscope. Photographs were taken with a Canon 5D Mk II camera with EF 100 mm f2.8, incorporating macro lenses, and extensor tubes. For the specimen identification, the taxonomic keys proposed by Burks (1960), Halstead (1990), Delvare (1992, 1992a), Boucek (1956, 1992), and Navarro-Tavares (2013) were used. Identifications were confirmed by reviewing diagnoses and descriptions on the abovementioned publications.

To represent geographical occurrences of the taxa identified, maps were constructed using QGIS (QGIS Development Team, 2015). Complementary data regarding elevations (m: meters above the sea level) were graphically represented. Abbreviations for several data categories recorded on labels are as follows: Fca., small farm; Hda., large farm; No. Catal., Catalog number; Vda., subdivision; Cgto., district; Qda., stream; Ins. Policía: a political division, similar to Cgto (Martínez and Serna, 2015).

Results and discussion

At the UNAB entomological museum, 214 specimens of Chalcididae were found and processed, in total eight genera were found: Brachymeria, Conura, Dirhinus, Ecuada, Haltichella, Notaspidium, Parastypiura, and Stypiura (Tab. 1).

TABLE 1 Chalcididae taxa represented in the CTC of the entomological museum of UNAB and number of specimens found per taxon. 

Geographic occurrence

Specimens of Chalcididae in the CTC at UNAB were collected mostly in the Southwestern and Central regions of Colombia. The results confirm that this family is found in 52 municipalities of the country, in the provinces of Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cesar, Cundinamarca, La Guajira, Meta, Nariño, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, Santander, Tolima, and Valle del Cauca. The genus Conura (Figs. 1A and B) corresponds to the most widely distributed taxon and contains the largest number of specimens in the Chalcid collection.

FIGURE 1 Geographic occurrence of Chalcididae in Colombia represented in the CTC of UNAB. A) species of Conura, B) morphospecies of Conura, C) species and morphospecies of Brachymeria, D) genera Ecuada, Dirhinus, Haltichella, Notaspidium, Stypiura, and Parastypiura

Furthermore, genera records from each province are as follows: Cundinamarca: Conura, Brachymeria, and Dirhinus (Fig. 1A-D), Caqueta: Conura, Brachymeria, Notaspidium, Haltichella, and Stypiura (Fig. 1A-D), Caldas: Ecuada (Fig. 1D), and Antioquia: Parastypiura (Fig. 1D).

Altitude distribution

Chalcididae specimens were found in a gradient from 8 to 2,150 m a.s.l. (Fig. 2), with an average of 378 m a.s.l., agreeing with the records published by Delvare (1995), who attributed a higher distribution of this family in Neotropical lowland areas. Conura was collected from 8 to 1,949 m a.s.l., with an average of 467 m a.s.l., and Brachymeria was found from 13 to 2,046 m a.s.l., with an average of 302 m a.s.l. These genera were more often collected in agroforestry areas. Further assessments showed that the genera Dirhinus, Ecuada, Haltichella, Notaspidium, Parastypiura and Stypiura were restricted to more specific elevations (Fig. 2), and specimens are not common in collections. Ecuada was found up to 2,150 m a.s.l., contrasting with the much narrower elevation range reported by Boucek (1992) from 400 up to 850 m a.s.l.

FIGURE 2 Elevation ranges (distribution altitude, m a.s.l.) of genera Chalcididae from Colombia represented in the CTC of UNAB. 

Worldwide, Conura and Brachymeria are the richest genera in terms of species described within the family, accounting for 303 and 313, respectively (Noyes, 2017). However, identification of species into these genera is difficult. In the literature, taxonomic identification keys are scarce and incomplete, and numerous current descriptions are in need of taxonomic revisions. For the genus Brachymeria,Burks (1960) and Delvare (1992) offer identification keys for species commonly found in the Neotropical region.

Nonetheless, Delvare (1992) provided a key for the species groups of Conura, being currently the most comprehensive tool for species identification within this genus. This author recorded 75 species in the Conura genus for Colombia (the Noyes checklist 2017, and "the Insect Survey of a Megadiverse Country: Colombia" - National Science Foundation, NSF 2006), including acragae, adela, aequalis, amoena, annulipes, apaiis, apicalis, ashmilis, attacta, belti, biannulata, bipunctata, blanda, camescens, carinata, compactilis, contributa convexa, correcta, cressoni, dares, debilis, decisa, delicata, depicta, desmieri, destinata, discolor, distincta, dorsimaculata, eubule, expleta, femorata, ferruginea, flava, flavicans, foveata, fulvovariegata, fusiformis, hirtifemora, immaculata, incongrua, lecta, lenkoi, lobata, maculata, maculipennis, magdelenensis, marcosensis, masus, media, miniata, morleyi, nigrifrons, nigrita, odontotae, oiketicusi, paya, philippia, pintoi, pseudofulvovariegata, pygmaea, quadrilineata, quadripunctata, rasplusi, rufoscutellaris, side, surumuae, toluca, transidiata, transitiva, tygen, unilineata, vau, and xanthostigma.

Despite this wide survey, the results obtained from the UNAB survey increased the abovementioned checklist in 11 species, including acuminata, acuta, albomaculata, coccinata, dimidiata, dorsata, enocki, mayri, mesomelas, marginata, and persimilis, for a total list of 86 Conura species reported for Colombia.

Based on published checklists, Chalcids from Colombia comprise a total of 15 genera and 102 species (Fernández 1995; NSF 2006; Noyes 2017). However, in the UNAB entomological museum some specimens represent new records for Colombia. Among these, the genera Ecuada and Parastypiura, as well as records of 11 species of the genus Conura, updated the checklist of Chalcididae for Colombia to 17 genera and 115 species. Furthermore, regarding Chalcididae published-collections containing curated-voucher specimens (point mounted, labeled, identified, and cataloged), the central taxonomical collection of the UNAB entomological museum constitutes the largest Chalcididae collection in Colombia. Authors such as Fernández (1995), NSF (2006), and Noyes (2017) highlight that most Chalcididae specimens representing previously published inventories from Colombia have been deposited into collections outside the country. Hence, representative Colombian Chalcididae collections in the country are scarce, and, therefore, it is important to compile, update, and disseminate the information included in these collections.

The status of the Chalcididae subfamily deposited in the central taxonomic collection of the entomological museum of UNAB, including the number of specimens, geographical data in Colombia and new records for the country are listed below.

CHALCIDINAE

Conura Spinola, 1837

Conura acragae Delvare, 1993

Material examined: 4 specimens. Caldas, Belalcazar, Hda. Beltran, 900 m, 4°57' N, 75°47' W, 25-Sep-2010, J.M. Perilla [UNAB 3526]. Tolima, Espinal, 323 m, 4°9' N, 74°56' W, 9-Jun-1979, F. Riveros [UNAB 3526]. Cundinamarca, La Mesa, 1,298 m, 4°38'0.5" N, 74°27'57" W, 12-Sep-2003, C. Matiz [UNAB 3526]. Cesar, Valledupar, Fca. San Miguel, 169 m, 10°27' N, 73°15' W, 6-Apr-2012, G. Villamizar [UNAB 3526].

Conura acuminata (Ashmead, 1904)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Meta, Villavicencio, Universidad de los Llanos, 467 m, 4°04' N, 73°34' W, 20-Sep-2012, R. Tejedor [UNAB 1034].

Conura acuta (Fabricius, 1804)

Material examined: 2 specimens. Tolima, Carmen de Apicala, 328 m, 4°8' N, 74°43' W, 27-Jul-1994, A. Torres [UNAB 3528]. Meta, Guamal, 525 m, 3°52' N, 73°46' W, 29-Mar-1994, J.G. Ortiz [UNAB 3528].

Conura albomaculata (Ashmead, 1904) Material examined: 1 specimen. Caqueta, San Vicente del Caguan, Vda. Palestro, Fca. El Limonar, 270 m, 2°7'11.40" N, 74°45'0.82" W, 30-Mar-2016, L. Pérez [UNAB 1865].

Conura apicalis (Ashmead, 1904)

Material examined: 2 specimens. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 352 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 20-Mar-2015, L. Pérez; J. Martínez [UNAB 1872]. Cundinamarca, Sasaima, 1,203 m, 4°57' N, 74°26' W, 28-Sep-1975, L.H. Ramirez [UNAB 1872].

Conura coccinata (Cresson, 1872)

Material examined: 4 specimens. Cundinamarca, La Vega, Laguna El Tabacal, 1,337 m, 5°1' N, 74°19' W, 12-Aug-2012, C. Sosa [UNAB 1035]. Cundinamarca, La Vega, Vda. El Vino, 1,230 m, 5°1' N, 74°20' W, 30-Sep-2011, J. Cante [UNAB 1035]. Cundinamarca, La Mesa, Vda. San Javier, 1,142 m, 4°40' N, 74°27' W, 1-Jun-1997, A. Alessandri [UNAB 1035]. Cundinamarca, Ubala, Vda. El Puerto, 1,949 m, 4°44' N, 73°32' W, 20-Jan-1998, M. García [UNAB 1035].

Conura decisa (Walker, 1862)

Material examined: 9 specimens. Arauca, Arauca, Caño Limon, 125 m, 7°5' N, 70°45' W, 12-Jun-1990, H. Urrego [UNAB 1886]. Tolima, Natagaima, 323 m, 3°37' N, 75°5' W, 1-May-1996, Moncaleano [UNAB 1886]. Cundinamarca, Ricaurte, 284 m, 4°16' N, 74° 46' W, 30-Sep-1972, M. Ospina [UNAB 1886]. Cundinamarca, Villeta, 829 m, 5°0'51" N, 74°28'33" W, 2-Jun-2014, A. Becerra [UNAB 1886]. Meta, Puerto Lopez, Fca. Hato grande, 184 m, 4°5> N, 72°57' W, 19-Oct-2012, J. Carrasco [UNAB 1886]. Putumayo, Villa Garzon, Vda. San Fidel, Fca. La Cuca, 362 m, 0°50'15" N, 76°38'5.9" W, 25-Mar-2015, D. Gómez [UNAB 1886]. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Rumiyaco, Fca. Heraldo Vallejo, 700 m, 1°07'48.6" N, 76°39'55.8" W, 4-Mar-2016, L. Vargas [UNAB 1886]. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Caliyaco, Tropical Amazonian Botanical Garden, 584 m, 1°7'6" N, 76°37'58" W, 18-Sep-2015, D. Jurado [UNAB 1886]. Putumayo, Villa Garzon, Vda. San Rafael, Fca. El Escondite, 317 m, 0°47'41.6" N, 76°35'82" W, 29-feb-2016, C. Mora [UNAB 1886].

Conura depicta (Walker, 1864)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Nariño, Tumaco, Vda. Cajapi, Km 30 via Tumaco-Pasto, UNAL, 10 m, 1°36'36.2" N, 78°43'12.8" W, 22-Sep-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 1871].

Conura destinata (Walker, 1864)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Nariño, Francisco Pizarro, Salahonda, 8 m, 2°02'14" N, 78°39'30.56" W, 4-Mar-2016, E. Ortegón [UNAB 1887].

Conura dimidiata (Fabricius, 1804)

Material examined: 3 specimens. Valle del Cauca, Yoto-co, Vda. Muñecos, Cgto. El Dorado, Fca. la Union, 1,522 m, 3°51' N, 76°26' W, 27-Nov-2013, S. Calderón [UNAB 1032]. Putumayo, Villa Garzon, Vda. San Rafael, Fca. El Escondite, 317 m, 0°47'42" N, 73°35'8" W, 19-Sep-2015, K. Rodriguez [UNAB 1032]. Putumayo, Puerto Asis, Vda. Brisas de Hong Kong, 270 m, 0°28'55.6" N, 76°30'17.7" W, 25-Mar-2015, S. Córdoba [UNAB 1032].

Conura dorsata (Cresson, 1872)

Material examined: 5 specimens. Tolima, Natagaima, Vda. Yaco, 349 m, 3°29' N, 75°10' W, 2-Jun-2014, J. Rojas [UNAB 1889]. Tolima, Melgar, Villa Sofia neighborhood, 349 m, 4°12' N, 74°37' W, 1-Mar-2014, O. Cristancho [UNAB 1889]. Cundinamarca, La Vega, 1,217 m, 4°38'9.87" N, 74°5'19.56" W, 11-May-2014, A. Gamba [UNAB 1889]. Cundinamarca, Anapoima, 716 m, 4°33' N, 74°32' W, 6-Jan-2014, E. Fernandez [UNAB 1889]. Risaralda, Santa Rosa de Cabal, Vda. El Guayabal, Fca. Yoyaricuma, 1,750 m, 4°87' N, 75°62' W, 10-May-2012, E. Quintero [UNAB 1889].

Conura enocki (Ashmead, 1904)

Material examined: 3 specimens. Antioquia, Tarso, Vda. Condor, Fca. Peña Bonita, 1,266 m, 5°52'1" N, 75°49'1" W, 23-Sep-2012, J. Perilla [UNAB 1866]. Tolima, Piedras, Hda. El Chaco, 426 m, 4°57' N, 74°53' W, 5-Oct-2012, L. Buitrago [UNAB 1866]. Putumayo, Villa Garzon, Vda. San Fidel, Fca. La Cuca, 352 m, 0°50'15" N, 76°38'5.9" W, 27-Mar-2015, S. García [UNAB 1866].

Conura foveata (Kirby, 1883)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Tolima, Melgar, 323 m, 4°12' N, 74°38' W, 9-Jul-1978, A. Sánchez [UNAB 1888].

Conura lecta (Cresson, 1872)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Meta, Granada, 345 m, 3°33'34" N, 73°42'21" W, 1-Nov-2015, D. Guevara [UNAB 3562].

Conura marginata (Ashmead, 1904)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Orito, Vda.

El Yarumo, km 35, Fca. El Limonar, 325 m, 0°39'36.7" N, 76°47'24.1" W, 26-Mar-2015, S. García [UNAB 3527]. Conura mayri (Ashmead, 1904)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Meta, Puerto Gaitan, Fca. La Fazenda, 149 m, 3°50' N, 71°15' W, 28-May-2009, J. García; I. Quiroga [UNAB 1869]. Conura mesomelas (Walker, 1862)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Caliyaco, Jardin Botanico Tropical Amazonico, 584 m, 1°7'6" N, 76°37'58" W, 18-Sep-2015, A. Pantoja [UNAB 3465].

Conura nigrifrons (Cameron, 1884)

Material examined: 1 specimen. La Guajira, Maicao, 52 m, 11°22' N, 72°14' W, 4-Dec-1995, J. Vargas [UNAB 3558].

Conura persimilis (Ashmead, 1904)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Tolima, Natagaima, Vda. Yaco, 349 m, 3°29' N, 75°10' W, 2-Jun-2014, J. Rojas [UNAB 1867].

Conura nigrita (Howard, 1894)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 352 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 20-Mar-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 3429].

Conura quadripunctata (Fabricius, 1804) Material examined: 3 specimens. Nariño, Tumaco, Vda. Cajapi, Km 30 vía Tumaco-Pasto, UNAL, 10 m, 1°36>36.2" N, 78°43'12.8" W, 22-Sep-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 1868]. Cundinamarca, Fusagasuga, 1,728 m, 4°20' N, 74°21' W, 20-Apr-2000, J. Otálora [UNAB 1868]. Amazonas, Leticia, Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu (Amacayacu Natural National Park), 100 m, 3°29' N, 70°12' W, 12-Jun-1995, F. Fernández [UNAB 1868].

Conura side (Walker, 1843)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Tolima, Saldaña, Vda. Santa Marta, Qda. Papayal, 410 m, 3°56' N, 75°1' W, 4-Apr-2002, J. Martínez [UNAB 1870].

Conura xanthostigma (Dalman, 1820)

Material examined: 9 specimens. Cundinamarca, La Mesa, 1,198 m, 4°9' N, 72°60' W, 11-Nov-2012, L. Zubieta [UNAB 1037]. Cundinamarca, Puente Quetame, 1,361 m, 4°18' N, 73°51' W, 24-Nov-2012, L. Guerrero [UNAB 1037]. Cundinamarca, Sasaima, Vda. Santa Ana, 1,376 m, 4°55' N, 74°26' W, 17-May-2014, T. Cárdenas [UNAB 1037]. Cundinamarca, Anolaima, 1,657 m, 4°46' N, 74°28' W, 2-Nov-2012, D. Ramírez [UNAB 1037]. Cundinamarca, Tibacuy, Vda. La Vuelta, 1,600 m, 4°20' N, 74°27' W, 1-May-2010, R. Forero [UNAB 1037]. Cundinamarca, Cachipay, Laguna Verde, 1,600 m, 4°743' N, 74°26' W, 21-Feb-1998, V. Bernal; K. Turriago [UNAB 1037]. Cundinamarca, Quipile, Vda. El Retiro, 1,400 m, 4°39' N, 74°35' W, 14-Jun-2015, S. García [UNAB 1037]. Tolima, Honda, 214 m, 5°12'11" N, 74°44'17" W, 27-Mar-2010, D. Salinas [UNAB 1037]. Valle del Cauca, Yotoco, Vda. Muñecos, Cgto. El Dorado, Fca. La unión, 1,522 m, 3°50'49.84" N, 76°26'24.5" W, 27-Nov-2013, L. Pérez [UNAB 1037].

Conura spp.

Conura sp.l: 14 specimens. Cundinamarca, El Colegio, Margen occidental del rio Cauca (west margin of the Cauca river), 990 m, 4°35' N, 74°27' W, 1-Sep-2012, F. Ariza [UNAB 1033]. Cundinamarca, Silvania, 1,470 m, 4°24' N, 74°23' W, 15-Mar-1997, C. R. Bojacá [UNAB 1033]. Cundinamarca, La Mesa, 1,200 m, 4°37'49" N, 74°27'45" W, 30-Apr-2011, D. López [UNAB 1033]. Antioquia, Puente Iglesias, 569 m, 5°49' N, 75°42' W, 14-Apr-2012, J. Ordoñez [UNAB 1033]. Antioquia, Betania, 1,550 m, 5°44' N, 75°58' W, 10-Jan-1994, A. Avella [UNAB 1033]. Arauca, Arauca, Caño Limon, 125 m, 7°5' N, 70°45' W, 12-Jun-1990, Y. Urrego [UNAB 1033]. Caqueta, Florencia, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 12-Sep-2014, L. Pérez [UNAB 1033]. Meta, Villavicencio, Universidad de los Llanos (Unillanos), 467 m, 4°9'12" N, 73°38'06" W, 11-May-2011, A. Romero [UNAB 1033]. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Rumiyaco, Fca. Heraldo Vallejo, 700 m, 1°07'48.6" N, 76°39'55.8" W, 4-Mar-2016, M. Vanegas [UNAB 1033]. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 700 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48" W, 20-Mar-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 1033]. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 700 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48" W, 28-Feb-2016, L. Riveros [UNAB 1033]. Putumayo, Orito, Vda. El Yarumo, km 35, Fca. El Limonar, 325 m, 0°39'36.7" N, 76°47'24.1" W, 26-Mar-2015, J. Martínez [UNAB 1033]. Quindío, Armenia, 1,900 m, 4°32' N, 75°40' W, 18-Oct-2001, A. Sarmiento [UNAB 1033]. Conura sp.2: 4 specimens. Meta, Villavicencio, 467 m, 4°15' N, 73°64' W, 17-Oct-2012, L. Zubieta [UNAB 1036]. Cundinamarca, San Juan de Rioseco, La Mesita, 1,303 m, 4°37' N, 74°21' W, 24-May-2012, C. Pinilla [UNAB 1036]. Cundinamarca, Guaduas, 992 m, 5°4' N, 74°34' W, 14-Oct-2012, A. Gámez [UNAB 1036]. Caqueta, Florencia, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 12-Sep-2014, L. Perez [UNAB 1036]. Conura sp.3: 1 specimen. Meta, Villavicencio, Ins. Policia La Cuncia, 1,420 m, 4°04' N, 73°32' W, 19-Sep-2012, N. Tejedor [UNAB 1038]. Conura sp.4: 1 specimen. Antioquia, Puente Iglesias, west margin of the Cauca river, 569 m, 5°49' N, 75°42' W, 13-Mar-2012, C. Pinilla [UNAB 1039]. Conura sp.5: Material examined: 1 specimen. Cundinamarca, Anapoima, 710 m, 4°33' N, 74°32' W, 4-Mar-2012, C. Pinilla [UNAB 1040]. Conura sp.6: 1 specimen. Santander, Puente Nacional Nogales, 331 m, 4°57' N, 74°54' W, 12-Oct-2012, S. Dussán [UNAB 1349]. Conura sp.7: 2 specimens. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37" N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Oct-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 1350]. Conura sp.8: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37" N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Oct-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 1351]. Conura sp.9: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 257 m, 1°30'37' N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Oct-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 1352]. Conura sp.10: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37" N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Oct-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 1353]. Conura sp.11: 1 specimen. Caqueta, El Doncello, Vda. Anayacito, Granja Copoazu, 337 m, 1°40'2.33" N, 75°16'57" W, 1-Sep-2014, F. Serna [UNAB 1354]. Conura sp.12: 1 specimen. Meta, Villavicencio, 467 m, 4°15' N, 73°64' W, 17-Oct-2012, L. Zubieta [UNAB 3530]. Conura sp.13: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37' N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Oct-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 3531]. Conura sp.14: Material examined: 5 specimens. Caqueta, Florencia, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 12-Sep-2014, L. Pérez [UNAB 3532]. Conura sp.15: 1 specimen. Caqueta, El Doncello, Vda. Anayacito, Granja Copoazu, 337 m, 1°40'2.33" N, 75°16'57" W, 22-Sep-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 3533]. Conura sp.16: 9 specimens. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37" N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Mar-2016, L. Pérez [UNAB 3534]. Endoparasitoid on Pieridae chrysalid on plants of Duranta sp. (Verbenaceae). Conura sp.17: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Rumiyaco, Fca. Heraldo Vallejo, 700 m, 1°07'48.6" N, 76°39'55.8" W, 4-Mar-2016, D. Cárdenas [UNAB 3535]. Conura sp.18: 2 specimens. Putumayo, Orito, Vda. El Yarumo km 35, Fca. El Limonar, 325 m, 0°39'36.7" N, 76°47'24.1" W, 26-Mar-2015, J. Martínez [UNAB 3536]. Conura sp.19: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 12-Sep-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 3537]. Conura sp.20: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 352 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 20-Mar-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 3538]. Conura sp.21: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 352 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 22-Mar-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 3539]. Conura sp.22: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Caliyaco, Tropical Amazonian Botanical Garden, 584 m., 1°7'6" N, 76°37'58.7" W, 18-Sep-2015, A. Pantoja [UNAB 3540]. Conura sp.23: 1 specimen. Caqueta, San Vicente del Caguan, Vda. Palestro, Fca. El Limonar, 270 m, 2°7'11.40" N, 74°45'0.82" W, 20-Mar-2016, L. Pérez [UNAB 3541]. Conura sp.24: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Orito, Vda. El Yarumo, km 35, Fca. El Limonar, 325 m, 0°39'36.7" N, 76°47'24.1" W, 26-Mar-2015, N. Pérez [UNAB 3542]. Conura sp.25: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 352 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 22-Mar-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 3543]. Conura sp.26: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 352 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 22-Mar-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 3544]. Conura sp.27: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37" N, 75°40'21" W, 13-Oct-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 3545]. Conura sp.28: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 352 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 21-Mar-2015, J. Martínez [UNAB 3546]. Conura sp.29: 1 specimen. Amazonas, Leticia, Km 22, via Tarapacá, 82 m, 4°07'12" N, 69°56'26" W, 18-Aug-1997, D. Campos [UNAB 3547]. Conura sp.30: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 620 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 18-Sep-2015, J. Jiménez [UNAB 3548]. Conura sp.31: 1 specimen. Putumayo, Mocoa, Vda. Pueblo Viejo, Fca. Villa Loca, 352 m, 1°11'28.1" N, 76°38'48.3" W, 20-Mar-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 3549]. Conura sp.32: 1 specimen. Casanare, Yopal, Utopia campus, Universidad de La Salle, 249 m, 5°19'33.4" N, 72°17'47.4" W, 7-Aug-2015, H. Córdoba [UNAB 3550]. Conura sp.33: 4 specimens. Cundinamarca, Villeta, 801 m, 5°00'11.9" N, 74°28'41.6" W, 16-May-2010, M. Pineda [UNAB 3551]. Cundinamarca, Villeta, 850 m, 5°00' N, 74°28' W, 5-May-1991, C. Navia [UNAB 3551]. Cundinamarca, Mesitas, Vda. San Jose, 983 m, 4°35'14" N, 74°26'58" W, 4-Dec-2004, S. Cubillos [UNAB 3551]. Tolima, Ibague, El Rodeo, 1,250 m, 4°28' N, 75°18' W, 8-May-2004, O. Guataquira [UNAB 3551]. Conura sp.34: 3 specimens. Valle del Cauca, Santiago de Cali, 995 m, 3°26' N, 76°31' W, 1-Apr-1971, G. Cayón [UNAB 3553]. Valle del Cauca, El Cerrito, Semillas del Valle S.A, 987 m, 3°41'1" N, 76°19'30" W, 14-Oct-2003, E. Ortiz [UNAB 3553]. Tolima, Chaparral, Barrio Beltran (Beltran neighborhood), Granja Sixto Iriarte (Sixto Iriarte Farm), 854 m, 3°43'39" N, 75°29'16" W, 27-Aug-2003, A. Diaz [UNAB 3553]. Conura sp.35: 1 specimen. Meta, San Martin, Fca. El Caduceo, 405 m, 3°41'1" N, 73°41' W, 5-Jun-2012, J. Rodriguez [UNAB 3554]. Conura sp.36: 1 specimen. Tolima, Mariquita, Cataratas del rio Medina (Medina river waterfalls), 495 m, 5°11' N, 74°53' W, 16-Nov-1999, Lic. Biologia (Biology bachelor) [UNAB 3555]. Conura sp.37: 2 specimens. Tolima, Ibague, Vda. La Esperanza, 1,000 m, 4°28' N, 75°18' W, 18-Nov-2003, O. Guataquira [UNAB 3556]. Antioquia, Puente Iglesias, Margen occidental del rio Cauca (west margin of the Cauca river), 569 m, 5°49'54" N, 75°42'37" W, 13-Apr-2012, O. Ortiz [UNAB 3556]. Conura sp.38: Conura sp.38, 1 specimen. Cundinamarca, Ubala, Vda. El Puerto, 1,949 m, 4°44' N, 73°32' W, 20-Jan-1998, M. García [UNAB 3557]. Conura sp.39: 1 specimen. Amazonas, Leticia, Km 22 via Tarapaca, 82 m, 4°07'12" N, 69°56'26" W, 18-Aug-1997, D. Campos [UNAB 3559]. Conura sp.40: 2 specimens. Cundinamarca, Mesitas, Vda. San Jose, 983 m, 4°35'14" N, 74°26'58" W, 4-Dec-2004, S. Cubillos [UNAB 3560]. Cundinamarca, Anolaima, 1,607 m, 4°46'00" N, 74°28'00" W, 23-Mar-2011, A. Silva [UNAB 3560]. Conura sp.41: 1 specimen. Antioquia, Dabeiba, Bomba "Terpel" ("Terpel" fuel station), 395 m, 7°00' N, 76°39' W, 29-Mar-2014, J. Velásquez [UNAB 3561]. Conura sp.42: 5 specimens. Valle del Cauca, Palmira, Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) (Colombian Agriculture Institute), 1,001 m, 3°32' N, 76°17' W, 12-Jun-1905, L. Nuñez [UNAB 3563]. Valle del Cauca, Santiago de Cali, zoologico de Cali (Cali zoo), 1,035 m, 3°26' N, 76°33' W, 27-Oct-2014, W. Hernández [UNAB 3563]. Cundinamarca, La Vega, 1,217 m, 4°38' N, 74°5'19.56" W, 11-May-2014, A. Gamba [UNAB 3563]. Cundinamarca, Anapoima, 710 m, 4°33' N, 74°32' W, 10-Nov-2012, F. Ariza [UNAB 3563]. Cundinamarca, Sasaima, 1,376 m, 4°55' N, 74°26' W, 23-Oct-1990, Rodríguez [UNAB 3563].

Brachymeria mnestor (Walker, 1841)

Material examined: 2 specimens. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37" N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Mar-2016, L. Pérez [UNAB 3525].

Comments from the authors: several Pieridae chrysalids in Duranta sp. (Verbenaceae) plants were collected and then placed into breeding chambers. From these, a single parasitoid of B. mnestor emerged from each of the two chrysalids.

Brachymeria spp.

Brachymeria sp.1: 6 specimens. Santander, Puente Nacional, Nogales, 331 m, 4°57' N, 74°54' W, 12-Oct-2012, S. Dussán [UNAB 1041]. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 257 m, 1°29'59" N, 75°39'47" W, 25-Nov-2014, C. Motta [UNAB 1041]. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37" N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Oct-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 1041]. Brachymeria sp.2: 7 specimens. Tolima, Espinal, Corpoica Nataima, 420 m, 4°9' N, 74°53' W, 23-Apr-2012, M. Cárdenas [UNAB 1345]. Caqueta, Florencia, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m., 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 12-Sep-2014, L. Perez [UNAB 1345]. Caqueta, El Doncello, Vda. Anayacito, 337 m, 1°40'2.33" N, 75°16'57" W, Sep-2014, F. Serna [UNAB 1345]. Brachymeria sp.3: 8 specimens. Cundinamarca, Anolaima, Vda. San Rafael, 2,046 m, 4°49' N, 74°26' W, 13-Sep-2012, J. Rivera [UNAB 1346]. Santander, San Gil, 1,117 m, 6°33' N, 73°8' W, 3-Oct-2012, D. Ramírez [UNAB 1346]. Brachymeria sp.4: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75° 39'46.44" W, 12-Sep-2014, L. Pérez [UNAB 1348]. Brachymeria sp.5: 1 specimen. Nariño, Tumaco, Vda. Cajapi, Km 30, via Tumaco-Pasto, 13 m, 1°36'36.2" N, 78°43'12.8" W, 22-Sep-2015, L. Pérez [UNAB 1817].

Stypiura sp.

Material examined: 3 specimens. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 233 m, 1°30'37" N, 75°40'21" W, 25-Oct-2014, M. Bermúdez [UNAB 1356]. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m., N 1°29'58.7", W 75°39>46.44", 2-Sep-2016, L. Pérez [UNAB 1356].

Parastypiura sp. (Figs. 3A and B)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Antioquia, Puerto Triunfo, Reserva Natural cañon del Rio Claro (Natural Reserve of the Claro River Canyon), 350 m, 5°52' N, 74°38' W, 1-Jun-1985, R. Vélez [UNAB 1823].

Comment by the authors: this is the first record of the genus for Colombia.

FIGURE 3 Specimen of the genus Parastypiura from the CTC of the UNAB entomological museum: A) lateral view, B) dorsal view. 

FIGURE 4 Specimen of the Ecuada producta from the CTC of the UNAB entomological museum: A) lateral view, B) dorsal view, C) frontal view. 

HALTICHELLINAE

Dirhinus sp.

Material examined: 1 specimen. Cundinamarca, Arbelaez, Vda. Hato Viejo, Fca. Parcela, 1,140 m, 4°50'1.5" N -74°27'38.2" W, 22-Mar-2016, D. Cubillos [UNAB 3552].

Dirhinus (Dirhinus) sp.

Material examined: 1 specimen. Valle del Cauca, Palmira, Corpoica, Banco de Germoplasma (Germplasm Bank), 1,003 m, 3°31'47" N, 76°18'13" W, 15-Oct-2003, E. Ortiz [UNAB 1824].

Ecuada productaBoucek, 1992 (Figs. 4A-C)

Material examined: 1 specimen. Caldas, Manizales, Jardin Botanico (Botanical Garden of Manizales), 2,150 m, 5°6'15" N, 75°33'10" W, 29-Mar-2010, D. Salinas [UNAB 3529].

Comment by the authors: this is the first record of the genus for Colombia.

Haltichella ornaticornis Cameron, 1884

Material examined: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 2-Sep-2016, L. Pérez [UNAB 2530].

Haltichella spp.

Haltichella sp.1: Material examined: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 2-Sep-2016, L. Pérez [UNAB 2531].

Haltichella sp.2: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 2-Sep-2016, L. Pérez [UNAB 2532]. Haltichella sp.3: 1 specimen. Caqueta, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 13-Sep-2014, L. Pérez [UNAB 1190].

Notaspidium sp.

Material examined: 1 specimen. Caquetá, Florencia, Vda. La Viciosa, Macagual Amazonian Research Center, 274 m, 1°29'58.70" N, 75°39'46.44" W, 13-Sep-2014, L. Pérez [UNAB 1189].

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the UNAB entomological museum which facilitated the specimens, infrastructure, and equipment to carry out this study. Moreover, the authors want to thank Colciencias which partially funded this work through the National Basic Sciences Program, Code 110165843233, Contract FP44842-004-2015.

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Received: April 15, 2019; Accepted: December 12, 2019

* Corresponding author: fjsernac@unal.edu.co

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