SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.75 issue2Effectiveness of postharvest calcium salts applications to improve shelf-life and maintain apricot fruit quality during storageChemical and structural changes of ocote pine (Pinus oocarpa) wood caused by thermal modification author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín

Print version ISSN 0304-2847On-line version ISSN 2248-7026

Rev. Fac. Nac. Agron. Medellín vol.75 no.2 Medellín May/Aug. 2022  Epub May 31, 2022 


Antimicrobial potential of camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia) against bacteria, yeasts, and parasitic protozoa: a review

Potencial antimicrobiano del camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia) contra bacterias, levaduras y protozoos parásitos: una revisión

Juan Carlos Barrios Renteria1

Enrique Alonso Mauricio-Sandoval1

Luis Alfredo Espinoza-Espinoza1

Heber Peleg Cornelio-Santiago2

Luz Arelis Moreno-Quispe3

Edwin Jorge Vega Portalatino1

1 Facultad de Ingeniería de Industrias Alimentarias, Universidad Nacional de Frontera, Sullana, Peru.,,,

2 Escuela Profesional de Ingeniería en Industrias Alimentarias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Tayacaja Daniel Hernández Morillo, Tayacaja, Peru.

3 Facultad de Administración Hotelera y de Turismo, Universidad Nacional de Frontera, Sullana, Peru.


Some microorganisms are responsible for food spoilage and foodborne infections worldwide. These microorganisms are becoming increasingly resistant to degradation or inhibition due to exposure to antibiotics, antifungal, and antiparasitics, posing a growing threat to human health. The aim of this study was to describe the antimicrobial properties of compounds present in Myrciaria dubia (pulp, seed, peel, and leaves) against bacteria (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella and others), yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and parasitic protozoa (Leishmania amazonensis and Plasmodium falciparum). Different papers published in the main databases (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, as well as in university repositories) were reviewed. These results were analyzed and organized according to their inhibitory activity, attributable metabolic actions of this plant, mainly based on its phenolic compounds present (rhodomyrtone, isomyrtucommulone B, myrciarone B, trans-resveratrol, 2.4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, myricetin, syringic, ellagic acid and casuarictin), which can inhibit the synthesis or destabilize the microbial membrane, nucleic acids, cell walls in bacteria and mitochondrial dysfunction in protozoa.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid; Inhibition; Pathogen; Phenolic compounds


Algunos microorganismos son responsables del deterioro de los alimentos y de las infecciones alimentarias en el mundo. Estos microorganismos se están volviendo cada vez más resistentes a la degradación o inhibición debido a la exposición de antibióticos, antifúngicos y antiparasitarios, lo que supone una amenaza creciente para la salud de las personas. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las propiedades antimicrobianas de los compuestos presentes en Myrciaria dubia (pulpa, semilla, cáscara y hoja) contra bacterias (Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella y otros), levaduras (Candida albicans y Saccharomyces cerevisiae) y protozoos parásitos (Leishmania amazonensis y Plasmodium falciparum). Se revisaron distintos trabajos publicados en las principales bases de datos (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Wiley Online Library), así como en repositorios de universidades. Estos resultados fueron analizados y organizados de acuerdo a su actividad inhibitoria, capacidad atribuible a las acciones metabólicas de esta planta, basados principalmente en sus compuestos fenólicos presentes (rhodomyrtone, isomyrtucommulone B, myrciarone B, trans-resveratrol, ácido 2,4-dihidroxibenzoico, myricetin , syringic, ácido elágico y casuarictin), los que pueden inhibir la síntesis o desestabilizar la membrana microbiana, ácidos nucleicos, paredes celulares en bacterias y disfunción mitocondrial en protozoos.

Palabras clave: Ácido ascórbico; Inhibición; atógenos; Compuestos fenólicos

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast, and parasitic protozoa (WHO, 2021). Their spread is increasing, producing economic crises and threatening people's safety (Gushulak and MacPherson, 2004; Vignier and Bouchaud, 2018). Over the years, microorganisms have acquired resistance to different antibiotics, antifungals, or antiparasitic; their mechanisms of resistance to different drugs have increased due to the non-specific rejection of hydrophobic chemical substances due to the impermeability of the outer membrane, the acquisition of non-specific eflux pumps, biofilms formation, and others. Thus, it is necessary to search for natural sources of antimicrobials agents that do not affect humans' and animals' health nor harm the environment (Carey and McNamara, 2015; Mir, 2022; Moglad et al., 2020; Samanta and Bandyopadhyay, 2020; Santos and Santana, 2019; Yadav et al., 2019).

Myrciaria dubia is a shrub belonging to the Myrtaceae family; native to the Amazon rainforest and grows naturally in floodable areas of streams and on the banks of rivers, lakes, or swamps of the Peruvian, Brazilian, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Venezuelan Amazon (Castro et al., 2018; Hernández et al., 2011; Lim, 2012). The phytochemical properties of this plant have been the subject of multiple studies. They have been characterized and named as functional food, due to their high content of ascorbic acid, which varies according to the part of the fruit and its state of maturity (Alves et al., 2002; Castro et al., 2013; Cunha-Santos et al., 2019; Justi et al., 2000; Rodrigues et al., 2001; Santos et al., 2022; Villanueva-Tiburcio et al., 2010; Yuyama et al., 2002; Obregón-La Rosa et al., 2021).

M. dubia has been shown to contain carotenoids, such as β-carotene, violaxanthin, and luteoxanthin (Zanatta and Mercadante, 2007), saponins, tannins (Da Silva et al., 2022) and essential oils such as α-pinene, α-phellandrene, terpinolene, E-caryophyllene, γ-cadinene (Da Costa et al., 2022); in addition to phenolic compounds, proanthocyanidins (Fujita et al., 2013), quercetin and kaempferol derivatives (Gonçalves et al., 2010), delphinidin 3-glucoside, naringenin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, rutin, flavan-3-ol, flavonol, flavanone, and ellagic acid derivatives and catechin (Chirinos et al., 2010; Reynertson et al., 2008). Moreover, it presents phenolic compounds, such as vescalagin, castalagin (Fidelis et al., 2020); myrciarone A and B, isomyrtucommulone B, rhodomyrtone (Kaneshima et al., 2016), rosmarinic acid, trans-resveratrol, quercetin, syringic acid, methylvescalagin and cyanidin-3-glucoside, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (Do Carmo et al., 2019), myricetin and ellagic acid (De Azevêdo et al., 2014). The presence of these compounds varies according to the different parts of M. dubia (pulp, seed, peel, and leaves).

Some compounds present in M. dubia demonstrated antimicrobial activity (Figure 1) as myrciarone A from the peel (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis), rhodomyrtone from the peel (B. subtilis, B. cereus, M. luteus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans), isomyrtucommulone B from the seed (B. cereus, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, B. subtilis) myrciarone B from the seed (B. cereus, B. subtilis, S. aureus, S. mutans, S. epidermidis) (Kaneshima et al., 2017), trans-resveratrol (Schistosoma mansoni), methylvescalagin (S. mansoni, Plasmodium falciparum), quercetin, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (S. mansoni, P. falciparum from the seeds (Do Carmo et al., 2020); myricetin, syringic acid, ellagic acid, and casuarictin from the lyophilized pulp powder proved to be effective against S. aureus (Fujita et al. 2015).

Figure 1 Phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties from M. dubia (Kaneshima et al., 2017; Do Carmo et al., 2020; Fujita et al. 2015). 

Some analyzes have shown that pure phenolic compounds such as quercetin, naringenin, and kaempferol have strong antimicrobial activity (Rauha et al., 2000). Additionally, some compounds (Myricetin) present in M. dubia were found in other plant samples and demonstrated inhibitory action for Proteus vulgaris and S. aureus (Mori et al., 1987).

In this context, this review aimed to describe the antimicrobial properties of the compounds present in the pulp, seed, peel and leaves from M. dubia against bacteria, yeasts, and parasitic protozoa.


From main databases, a search for papers published about this topic was performed (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, Wiley Online Library). Also, university repositories were consulted using the following descriptors camu camu or Myrciaria dubia and antimicrobial or bacteria or microorganisms or antimicrobial activity, preferably within the last 15 years. The information was organized according to the use of M. dubia, considering the antimicrobial properties of the compounds present in the different parts of M. dubia against different microorganisms.


Inhibitory capacity of M. dubia

M. dubia contains phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids), and they can inhibit microorganisms (Kaneshima et al., 2017; Do Carmo et al., 2020; Fidelis et al., 2020).

The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds is related to the kinetic curve of microbial death and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (Fujita et al., 2015; Levison, 2004; Pankey and Sabath, 2004).

Antibacterial activity is due to the compounds that degrade the cell wall and/or functionally interfere with the bacterial enzymes present in these structures (Finberg et al., 2004). They cause the death of microorganisms through a process known as bactericidal action. On the other hand, bacteriostatic action occurs when the ribosomal function and protein synthesis that allows the reduction of microbial population growth are inhibited (French, 2006).

Some compounds such as myricetin have shown a bacterial inhibition of RNA synthesis (S. aureus), this inhibitory action on DNA or RNA synthesis occurs due to the B ring of flavonoids, which interacts with hydrogen bonds causing stacking of nucleic acid bases (Mori et al., 1987). Likewise, Ohemeng et al. (1993) demonstrated that flavones (ellagic acid) inhibit the catalytic activity of DNA gyrase. Similarly, some alkaloids can act as agonists or antagonists of neuroreceptors/ion channels, leading parasites (S. mansoni) to death due to neurotoxic effects (Do Carmo et al., 2020).

Kaneshima et al. (2017) and Fidelis et al. (2020) demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of M. dubia on yeasts (Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). There is no knowledge about the mechanism of cellular action. Nevertheless, the inhibition of protozoa is possibly due to the action of quercetin in causing mitochondrial dysfunction in these parasites (Correia et al., 2016).

M. dubia benefits. The inhibitory capacity of M. dubia constitutes an excellent alternative as a functionalized ingredient in food; it can also be used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries by presenting compounds with the biological activity of interest, in which ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds stand out (Conceição et al., 2020; Inocente-Camones et al., 2014; Fidelis et al., 2020).

The phenolic compounds present in M. dubia (pulp, seed, peel and leaves) have potential alternative uses, once they show inhibitory capacity against bacteria (S. aureus, B. cereus, B. subtilis, S. mutans, S. epidermidis, E. coli, Streptococcus sanguinis) and yeasts (C. albicans, S. cerevisiae) (Camere-Colarossi et al., 2016; Conceição et al., 2020; Fidelis et al., 2020; Fujita et al. 2015; Kaneshima et al., 2017; Myoda et al., 2010; Roumy et al., 2020). Additionally, the by-products can be used after a pre-treatment of drying with hot air, spray drying, or lyophilization (De Azevêdo et al., 2014; De Azevêdo et al., 2015). Furthermore, the lyophilized pulp of M. dubia has shown greater inhibition capacity than ampicillin (Fujita et al., 2013).

Another advantage of this plant is that contributes to human health as was demonstrated in different studies (Camere-Colarossi et al., 2016; De Azevêdo et al., 2014; Moromi et al., 2016; Myoda et al., 2010). It is traditionally used in the indigenous communities of Loreto, Peru to heal various illnesses, including gingivitis, and to keep the gums of human teeth healthy (Flores, 2010; Pinedo et al., 2011).

Inhibitory capacity of M. dubia against different microorganisms

The following is a summary of studies related to the inhibition of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts and protozoa) for compounds present in the pulp, seed, peel, and leaves from M. dubia.

M. dubia against Staphylococcus spp. The lyophilized optimized Camu-Camu seed extract (1g:20 mL of the mixture of 43.3% propanone, 40.7% water and 16% ethyl alcohol) showed inhibition against S. aureus ATCC13565 with an inhibition zone of 9.7 mm; it could block the transcription due to its castalagin and vescalagin contents (Fidelis et al., 2020). In another study, using n-hexane extract from M. dubia peel and seed; fractions of n-hexane extract (n-hexane layers and 90% acetonitrile layers) and acylphloroglucinols of n-hexane extract (1: Myrciarone A; 2: Rhodomyrtone; 3: Isomyrtucommulone B and 4: Myrciarone B) presented antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. In n-hexane extracted from the peel, MIC values were 12.50 (n-Hexane extract), 6.25 (n-hexane layers), 12.5 (90% acetonitrile layers), 1.56 (Myrciarone A) and 0.78 ug mL-1 (Rhodomyrtone). In n-hexane extracted from the seed obtained MIC value of 6.25 (n-Hexane extract, n-hexane layers, and 90% acetonitrile layers) and 1.56 ug mL-1 (Isomyrtucommulone B and Myrciarone B). Similarly, inhibitory activity was evidenced against S. epidermidis with MIC values of 6.25 (n-Hexane extract and n-hexane layers), 12.5 (90% acetonitrile layers), 3.13 (Myrciarone A) and 0.78 µg mL-1 (Rhodomyrtone) for the n-hexane extract from the peel and for the n-hexane extract from the seed were obtained MIC values of 12.5 (n-Hexane extract and n-hexane layers), 6.25 (90% acetonitrile layers and Isomyrtucommulone B) and 3.13 ug mL-1 (Myrciarone B), respectively (Kaneshima et al., 2015 and Kaneshima et al., 2017). Due to the presence of proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and phenolic acids in the lyophilized ethanol extract, M. dubia (aqueous extracts of seeds and peel) showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus with an inhibition zone of 12 mm (De Azevêdo et al., 2014).

The methanolic extract obtained from M. dubia leaves (1.2 mg mL-1) inhibited S. epidermidis 5001 by the action of β-sitosterol and betulinic acid, which allowed the activation of drug-like chemosensory signals (Roumy et al., 2020).

Additionally, antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract (5 mg mL-1) obtained from seed and peel of M. dubia for S. aureus was observed; the zone of inhibition for the seed extract was 2.7 mm while for the peel extract it was 3.1 mm. This is attributed to the high content of phenolic compounds (Myoda et al., 2010).

Another study showed that the antimicrobial activity of the lyophilized pulp extract of M. dubia diluted in 70% methanol inhibited S. aureus ATCC 29213 with a MIC of 0.08 mg mL-1 (0% maltodextrin or gum arabic) presenting a higher activity than ampicillin (0.26 mg mL-1), this antimicrobial activity is due to the presence of ellagic acid, tannins, cyanidin, quercetin, catechin, kaempferol, and rutin (Fujita et al., 2015).

The methanolic extracts obtained from seeds, peels, and leaves of M. dubia showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus spp. as shown in Table 1. The extracts studied did not show inhibition against S. aureus. For S. epidermidis 8157, the inhibition occurred due to the action of β-sitosterol and betulinic acid present in the methanolic extract of leaves (Roumy et al., 2020).

Table 1 Antimicrobial effect of different parts of the fruit of M. dubia 

M. dubia against Escherichia coli. The lyophilized optimized camu-camu seed extract (1:20 g:mL of the mixture of 43.3% propanone, 40.7% water, and 16% ethyl alcohol) presented antibacterial activity again E. coli IAL2064 with an inhibition zone of 6.64 mm. (Fidelis et al., 2020). This inhibition is probably caused by their phenolic compounds such as quercetin, catechin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins (Fujita et al., 2015). M. dubia fruit juice presented greater inhibitory capacity against E. coli, while for Salmonella typhi, its inhibition capacity was lower, with inhibition zones of 16.9 and 11.19 mm, respectively. This inhibition against E. coli and S. typhi is attributed to the low pH (2.09) of the fruit juice (López, 2017).

Another study carried out on lyophilized extracts obtained from 1 g of lyophilized M. dubia peel, pulp, and seeds and solvent ethanol and water (80/20, v/v) proved that the MIC for E. coli from the peel was 10 mg mL-1. Extract with the most relevant antimicrobial potential was from pulp and seed parts (Conceição et al., 2020). This action was possible due to the formation of biofilms by their flavonoids myricetin and quercetin (Arita-Morioka et al., 2018).

M. dubia against yeasts. The dry extract of M. dubia seed diluted with n-hexane (500 mg 10 mL-1) showed inhibitory activity against C. albicans (MIC ˃ 100 μg mL-1); but the resulting layer of n-hexane and 90% acetonitrile layer obtained by countercurrent partitioning (acetonitrile: water = 9:1 v/v) and two isolated compounds such as isomyrtucommulone B and myrciarone B had no effect on the yeast (Kaneshima et al., 2017). In addition, Roumy et al., 2020 showed MIC values of 0.3, 0.3 and 1.2 mg mL-1 when they used diluted methanolic extracts (12 mg mL-1) from peel, seed, and leaves respectively against C. albicans 10286. On the other hand, dry extracts from peel and seed diluted in water or DMSO to obtain concentrations of 0.1-5.0 mg mL-1 had no activity against S. cerevisiae (Myoda et al., 2010). In another study, an evaluation of the antimicrobial activity for S. cerevisiae NCYC1006 was carried out using the lyophilized optimized M. dubia seed extract (1:20 g:mL of the mixture of 43.3% propanone, 40.7% water, and 16% ethyl alcohol) presented an inhibition zone of 5.74 mm (Fidelis et al., 2020).

M. dubia against parasitic protozoa. The action of dichloromethanolic extract from M. dubia leaves against P. falciparum (clone W2), Leishmania amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67PH8), Leishmania braziliensis (IOCL 566), and Leishmania chagasi (IOCL 579) through bioassays was evaluated. This extract showed inhibitory activity against P. falciparum (chloroquine-resistant strain W2). Also, it presented greater inhibitory activity against the L. amazonensis (200 µg mL-1 of extract inhibited in 85% of the promastigote form growth) than against L. braziliensis and L. chagasi. In addition, this extract presented a growth inhibition of 50% of the parasites (IC50) equal to 2.35 μg mL-1 for P. falciparum, 190.73 μg mL-1 for L. amazonensis, and ≥ 200 µg mL-1 for L. chagasi and L. braziliensis (Correia et al., 2016).

Similarly, in an evaluation using different concentrations (10-500 µg mL-1) from lyophilized extracts of M. dubia seeds (100/200 g:mL solvent (ultrapure water: ethanol)) with parasite suspensions (0.5% parasitaemia and 2% hematocrit), obtained IC50 of 24.2 μg mL-1 for P. falciparum (juvenile stage-12h) resistant to chloroquine (W2) with 100% H2O and IC50 of 26.8 μg mL-1 for P. falciparum (trophozoite-24h) sensible to chloroquine (3D7) with 75% of H2O + 25% ethanol extract, in vitro (Do Carmo et al., 2020), this may have occurred due to the action of phenolic compounds, flavonoids (quercetin) that allows the inhibition of enzymes (β-ketoacyl-ACP-reductase, β-hydroxacylACP-dehydratase and enoyl-ACP-reductase) involved in the type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (Tasdemir et al., 2006).

Some microorganisms which were inhibited by the action of M. dubia can be seen in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Microorganisms that can be inhibited by M. dubia (Kaneshima et al., 2017; Do Carmo et al., 2020; Fujita et al. 2015). 

M. dubia against different microorganisms.

Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis were inhibited using 100 μL of methanolic extracts from M. dubia pulp and seed. For both S. mutans and S. sanguinis, M. dubia seed extract had a major antibacterial (with inhibition zones of 21.36 and 19.21 mm, respectively) effect compared with the pulp extract. The MIC of methanolic seed extract against both strains could not be determined due to antibacterial activity even at very low concentrations of the extract. However, for the pulp extract, a MIC value of 62.5 μg mL-1 was observed for both strains (Camere-Colarossi et al., 2016). The use of hydroethanolic extracts of M. dubia at concentrations of 25, 50, and 75 mg mL-1 on antibacterial activity in vitro for S. mutans ATCC 35668 was evaluated, evidencing an increase in antibacterial activity directly proportional to the concentration of the extract. The concentration of 75 mg mL-1 presented an average inhibition of 18.2±0.774 mm, followed by the concentration of 50 mg mL-1 with an average inhibition of 14.6±1.055 mm and the concentration of 25 mg mL-1 with an average inhibition of 10.1±0.833 mm. The zone of inhibition of the positive control was 16.5±0.516 mm, probably rhodomyrtone is responsible for the antibacterial activity since in addition to being present in the peel and seeds it is also found in the pulp (Ruiz-Barrueto et al., 2021).

Similarly, some authors demonstrated the inhibition of Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora by M. dubia, the following peel extracts revealed that 50% acetonic extract presented high inhibition, followed by ethanolic extract (50%), and chloroform extract (50%). For Pseudomonas cichorium, ethanolic extract (50%) presented greater inhibitory capacity followed by acetonic and chloroformic extracts (Flores and Naupari, 2017).

The methanolic extract of M. dubia seed showed activity against P. aureginosa ATCC25783 with MIC values of 1.2 mg mL-1 while P. aureginosa 8131 had no activity. On the other hand, the methanolic extracts of peel, seed and leave of M. dubia showed activity against Enterococcus faecalis T25-17 with MIC values of 0.3 mg mL-1 (peel and leave), 1.2 mg mL-1 (seed); in the same way, for Enterococcus spp. 8153 with MIC values of 0.3 mg mL-1 (peel and seed) (Roumy et al., 2020).

In another study, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tests were carried out on fish supplemented with 500 mg of M. dubia per kilogram of feed, it was observed a greater immune response of the fish against Aeromonas hydrophila in their swim bladder. The high ascorbic acid content of this plant increases the activity of leukocytes against pathogens and makes neutrophils in the blood increase and migrate to the site of infection to recognize and destroy pathogens, as well as the number of lymphocytes that generate antibodies. Furthermore, lysozyme serum exhibits the ability to hydrolyze peptidoglycans from the cell wall of pathogens (Yunis-Aguinaga et al., 2016).

Additionally, the B rings of the flavonoids interact with the hydrogens of the nucleic acids, inhibiting their synthesis; others can act at the cellular level of the bacteria, causing the release of components that can inactivate the bacteria (Cushnie and Lamb, 2005).

In another study, the optimized lyophilized M. dubia seed extract (1:20 g:mL of the mixture of 43.3% propanone, 40.7% water, and 16% ethyl alcohol) inhibited P. aeruginosa IAL1853 (8.72 mm), S. enteritidis S 2887 (6.82 mm), S. typhimurium IAL2431 (6.42 mm), B. cereus ATCC14579 (9.04 mm), Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 (8.58 mm) (Fidelis et al., 2020). However, Da Silva et al. (2021) studied the level at which M. dubia powder 0.0, 2.0, 3.5, or 5.0% (w/w), mixed with 200 g of ground meat and Salmonella enterica ser. typhimurium (5 log CFU g-1). The concentration of CPP at 5% had an inhibition value of 5.089 log UFC g-1 S. enterica compared to control without CPP (5.121 log UFC g-1 S. enterica), indicating the rapid decrease in the concentration of Salmonella when increasing the concentration of CPP by interfering with the adaptability of the pathogens; however, it does not extend the shelf life of ground meat.

Furthermore, Willemann et al. (2020) showed that 2 mgof lyophilized aqueous extract of camu camu seed exocarp inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes (11.9 mm), P. aeruginosa (8.9 mm), S. typhimurium (8.9 mm), S. enteritidis (10.5 mm) and B. cereus (8.8 mm).


Phenolic compounds of M. dubia (peel, pulp, seeds, and leaves) such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins have been studied and categorized as responsible for the inhibition of different Gram-positive bacteria (L. monocytogenes, S. aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, S. typhimurium, S. enteritidis, P. aeruginosa, S. tiphy), yeasts (S. cerevisiae, C. albicans), protozoa (P. falciparum, L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. chagasi) and other pathogenic microorganisms that could affect food, whose action could be due to functional interference of bacterial enzymes in their structures, bacteriostatic action on ribosomal function or protein synthesis and blocking of RNA or DNA synthesis by catalytic inhibition of DNA gyrase. The inhibition of protozoa is possibly due to the action of quercetin in causing mitochondrial dysfunction in these parasites.

The inhibitory capacity of M. dubia extracts might not affect beneficial probiotic bacteria and could be applied in foods after further studies on the subject.

Further fractionation and purification studies of compounds present in the different parts of M. dubia and evaluated against pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms are required. It is also necessary to explain the mechanism of action of inhibition of the different compounds at the cellular level.


Information regarding the antimicrobial capacity of M. dubia, an Amazonian fruit from countries such as Peru, Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela, has been identified and organized, offering a possible alternative to be used as an antimicrobial additive in the food industry after further studies.


Alves RE, Filgueiras HAC, Moura CFH, Araújo NCC and Almeida AS. 2002. Camu-Camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc Vaugh): A rich natural source of vitamin C. Proceeding of the Interamerican Society Tropical Horticulture 46: 11 - 13. [ Links ]

Arita-Morioka KI, Yamanaka K, Mizunoe Y, Tanaka Y, Ogura T and Sugimoto S. 2018. Inhibitory effects of Myricetin derivatives on curli-dependent biofilm formation in Escherichia coli. Scientific Reports 8: 8452. ]

Camere-Colarossi R, Ulloa-Urizar G, Medina-Flores D, Caballero-García S, Mayta-Tovalino F and del Valle-Mendoza J. 2016. Antibacterial activity of Myrciaria dubia (camu camu) against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 6(9): 740-744. ]

Carey DE and McNamara PJ. 2015. The impact of triclosan on the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology 5: 780. ]

Castro JC, Gutiérrez F, Acuña C, Cerdeira LA, Tapullima A, Cobos M and Iman S. 2013. Variación del contenido de vitamina C y antocianinas en Myrciaria dubia "camu camu". Revista de la Sociedad Química Del Perú 79(4): 319-330. [ Links ]

Castro JC, Maddox JD and Imán SA. 2018. Camu-camu-Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh. pp. 97-105. Exotic fruits. Academic Press. Cambridge, USA. ]

Chirinos R, Galarza J, Betalleluz-Pallardel I, Pedreschi R and Campos D. 2010. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of Peruvian camu camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh) fruit at different maturity stages. Food Chemistry 120(4): 1019-1024. ]

Conceição N, Albuquerque BR, Pereira C, Corrêa RCG, Lopes CB, Calhelha RC, Alves MJ, Barros L and Ferreira ICFR. 2020. By-products of camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh] as promising sources of bioactive high added-value food ingredients: Functionalization of yogurts. Molecules 25(1): 70. ]

Correia VCDS, Lima NO, Oliveira FADS, dos Santos APDA, Teles CBG, de Oliveira Júnior WP and Pimenta RS. 2016. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial and leishmanicidal potential of Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) extract. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 49(5): 586-592. ]

Cunha-Santos ECE, Viganó J, Neves DA, Martínez J and Godoy HT. 2019. Vitamin C in camu-camu [ Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K.) McVaugh]: evaluation of extraction and analytical methods. Food Research International 115: 160-166. ]

Cushnie TPT and Lamb AJ. 2005. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 26(5): 343-356. ]

Da Costa JS, Andrade WMS, de Figueiredo RO, Santos PVL, Freitas JJdaS, Setzer WN, da silva JKR, Maia JGS and Figueiredo PLB. 2022. Chemical composition and variability of the volatile components of Myrciaria species growing in the Amazon region. Molecules 27(7): 2234. ]

Da Silva JL, Cadavez V, Lorenzo JM, Figueiredo EEDS and Gonzales-Barron U. 2021. Effects of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) powder on the physicochemical and kinetic parameters of deteriorating microorganisms and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium in refrigerated vacuum-packed ground beef. Agriculture 11(3): 252. ]

Da Silva CSM and Mourão RHV. 2022. Antioxidant activity of Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu) extracts Myrtaceae. Research, Society and Development 11(2): e5811225130-e5811225130. ]

De Azevêdo JCS, Borges KC, Genovese MI, Correia RTP and Vattem DA. 2015. Neuroprotective effects of dried camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK McVaugh) residue in C. elegans. Food Research International 73: 135-141. ]

De Azevêdo JCS, Fujita A, de Oliveira EL, Genovese MI and Correia RTP. 2014. Dried camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. McVaugh) industrial residue: A bioactive-rich Amazonian powder with functional attributes. Food Research International 62: 934-940. ]

Do Carmo, MAV, Fidelis, M, Pressete, CG, Marques, MJ, Castro-Gamero, AM, Myoda, T, Granato, D, Azevedo, L. 2019. Hydroalcoholic Myrciaria dubia (camu-camu) seed extracts prevent chromosome damage and act as antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. Food Research International 125: 108551. ]

Do Carmo MAV, Fidelis M, Sanchez CA, Castro AP, Camps I, Colombo FA, Marques MJ, Myoda T, Granato D and Azevedo L. 2020. Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seeds as a novel source of bioactive compounds with promising antimalarial and antischistosomicidal properties. Food Research International 136: 109334. ]

Fidelis M, Do Carmo MAV, da Cruz TM, Azevedo L, Myoda T, Furtado MM, Marques MB, Sant'Ana AS, Genovese MI, Oh WY, Wen M, Shahidi F, Zhang L, Franchin M, de Alencar SM, Rosalen PL and Granato D. 2020. Camu-camu seed (Myrciaria dubia) - From side stream to an antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, antiproliferative, antimicrobial, antihemolytic, anti-inflammatory, and antihypertensive ingredient. Food Chemistry 310: 125909. ]

Finberg RW, Moellering RC, Tally FP, Craig WA, Pankey GA, Dellinger EP, West MA, Joshi M, Linden PK, Rolston KV, Rotschafer JC and Rybak MJ. 2004. The importance of bactericidal drugs: Future directions in infectious disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases 39(9):1314-1320. ]

Flores D. 2010. Uso Histórico: camu camu Myrciaria dubia (HBK) Mc Vaugh. Repositorio Institucional promperú, Lima. 25 p. [ Links ]

Flores ML and Naupari NW. 2017. Inhibición de bacterias fitopatógenas (Erwinia carotovora subsp carotovora y Pseudomona cichorii) a partir de extractos polifenólicos de cáscaras de camu camu y carambola para la agricultura orgánica (Tesis de licenciatura). Universidad Nacional del Callao. Lima. Perú. 118p. [ Links ]

French GL. 2006. Bactericidal agents in the treatment of MRSA infections - The potential role of daptomycin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 58(6): 1107-1117. ]

Fujita A, Sarkar D, Wu S, Kennelly E, Shetty K, and Genovese MI. 2015. Evaluation of phenolic-linked bioactives of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh) for antihyperglycemia, antihypertension, antimicrobial properties and cellular rejuvenation. Food Research International 77(2): 194-203. ]

Fujita A, Borges K, Correia R, Franco BDGDM and Genovese MI. 2013. Impact of spouted bed drying on bioactive compounds, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of commercial frozen pulp of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Mc. Vaugh). Food Research International 54(1): 495-500. ]

Gonçalves AESS, Lajolo FM and Genovese MI. 2010. Chemical composition and antioxidant/antidiabetic potential of brazilian native fruits and commercial frozen pulps. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 58(8): 4666-4674. ]

Gushulak BD and MacPherson DW. 2004. Globalization of infectious diseases: The impact of migration. Clinical Infectious Diseases 38(12): 1742-1748. ]

Hernández MS, Carrillo M, Barrera J and Fernández-Trujillo JP. 2011. Chapter 16 - Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia Kunth McVaugh). pp. 352-375e. In: Yahia EM. (Ed.). Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits Açai to Citrus. Woodhead Publishing, Sawston, UK. 532 p. ]

Inocente-Camones MÁ, Tomas-Chota GE, Huamán-Malla J, Muñoz-Jáuregui AM, García-Morán RI, Quispe-Fuentes G, Palomino-Pacheco CJ, and Taype-Espinoza EDR. 2014. Actividad antioxidante y fotoprotectora in vitro de una loción y gel elaborados con extracto estabilizado de camu camu (Myrciaria dubia Kunth.). Revista de la Sociedad Química Del Perú 80(1): 65-77. ]

Justi KC, Visentainer JV, de Souza NE and Matsushita M. 2000. Nutritional composition and vitamin C stability in stored camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) pulp. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición 50(4): 405-408. [ Links ]

Kaneshima T, Myoda T, Nakata M, Fujimori T, Toeda K and Nishizawa M. 2015. Rhodomyrtone, an antimicrobial acylphloroglucinol, in the peel of Myrciaria dubia (Camu-camu). Journal of the Japanese Society of Food Preservation Sciences 41: 71-76. [ Links ]

Kaneshima T, Myoda T, Nakata M, Fujimori T, Toeda K and Nishizawa M. 2016. Antioxidant activity of C-Glycosidic ellagitannins from the seeds and peel of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia). LWT - Food Science and Technology 69: 76-81. ]

Kaneshima T, Myoda T, Toeda K, Fujimori T and Nishizawa M. 2017. Antimicrobial constituents of peel and seeds of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia). Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 81(8): 1461-1465. ]

Levison ME. 2004. Pharmacodynamics of antimicrobial drugs. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 18(3): 451-465. ]

Lim TK. 2012. Chapter 86 - Myrciaria dubia. pp. 631-638. Edible medicinal and non medicinal plants. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. 898 p. ]

López AE. 2017. Efecto antibacteriano del zumo de Myrciaria dubia, Citrus grandis y Citrus reticula sobre Escherichia coli y Salmonella tiphy. Cientifi-K 5(1): 87-92. [ Links ]

Mir MA. 2022. Chapter 3- Evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance in human pathogenic fungi. pp. 53-70. Human Pathogenic Microbes. Academic Press. Cambridge, USA. 266p. ]

Moglad EH, Hamad AM, Fatima F, Seshadri VD and Naz M. 2020. Antimicrobial and wound healing activities of certain Sudanese medicinal plants. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 27(7): 1766-1772. ]

Mori A, Nishino C, Enoki N and Tawata S. 1987. Antibacterial activity and mode of action of plant flavonoids against Proteus vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus. Phytochemistry 26(8): 2231-2234. ]

Moromi HM, Perfecto DR, Cadillo EM, Alvarado EC and Espinoza F. 2016. Efectividad in vitro e in vivo de un colutorio a base de Myrciaria dubia "camu camu" sobre bacterias de importancia oral. Theorēma (Lima, Segunda Época, En Línea) (1): 83-92. [ Links ]

Myoda T, Fujimura S, Park B, Nagashima T, Nakagawa J and Nishizawa M. 2010. Antioxidative and antimicrobial potential of residues of camu-camu juice production. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 8(2): 304-307. [ Links ]

Obregón-La Rosa AJ, Augusto-Elías-Peñafiel CC, Contreras-López E, Arias-Arroyo GC and Bracamonte-Romero M. 2021. Características fisicoquímicas, nutricionales y morfológicas de frutas nativas. Revista de Investigaciones Altoandinas 23(1): 17-25. ]

Ohemeng KA, Schwender CF, Fu KP and Barrett JF. 1993. DNA gyrase inhibitory and antibacterial activity of some flavones (1). Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 3(2): 225-230. ]

Pankey GA and Sabath LD. 2004. Clinical relevance of bacteriostatic versus bactericidal mechanisms of action in the treatment of gram-positive bacterial infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases 38(6): 864-870. ]

Pinedo M, Delgado C, Farroñay R, del Castillo D, Iman S, Villacrés J, Fachin L, Oliva C, Abanto C, Bardales R and Vega R. 2011. Camu camu (Myrciaria dubia, Myrtaceae). Aportes para su aprovechamiento sostenible en la Amazonia Peruana. Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonia Peruana, Loreto, Perú. 135 p. [ Links ]

Rauha J-P, Remes S, Heinonen M, Hopia A, Kähkönen M, Kujala T, Pihlaja K, Vuorela H and Vuorela P. 2000. Antimicrobial effects of finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. International Journal of Food Microbiology 56(1): 3-12. ]

Reynertson KA, Yang H, Jiang B, Basile MJ and Kennelly EJ. 2008. Quantitative analysis of antiradical phenolic constituents from fourteen edible Myrtaceae fruits. Food Chemistry 109(4): 883-890. ]

Rodrigues RB, de Menezes HC, Cabral LM, Dornier M and Reynes M. 2001. An Amazonian fruit with a high potential as a natural source of vitamin C: the camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia). Fruits 56(5): 345-354. [ Links ]

Roumy V, Ruiz JCM, Bonneau N, Samaillie J, Azaroual N, Encinas LA, Rivière C, Hennebelle T, Sahpaz S, Antherieu S, Pinçon C, Neut C, Siah A, Gutierrez-Choquevilca AL and Ruiz L. 2020. Plant therapy in the Peruvian Amazon (Loreto) in case of infectious diseases and its antimicrobial evaluation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 249: 112411. ]

Ruiz-Barrueto MA, Pérez CGP, la Serna Solari PB and Cruz-López CYS. 2021. Actividad antibacteriana in vitro del extracto hidroetanólico de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth) McVaugh (camu camu) sobre Streptococcus mutans. Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical 73(2): e607 [ Links ]

Samanta I and Bandyopadhyay S. 2020. Chapter 1 - History of antimicrobial resistance. pp. 1-5. Antimicrobial resistance in agriculture perspective, policy and mitigation. Academic Press, Cambridge, USA. 377 p. ]

Santos TRJ and Santana LCLA. 2019. Antimicrobial potential of exotic fruits residues. South African Journal of Botany 124: 338-344. ]

Santos IL, Miranda LCF, da Cruz Rodrigues AM, da Silva LHM and Amante ER. 2022. Camu-camu [Myrciaria dubia (HBK) McVaugh]: A review of properties and proposals of products for integral valorization of raw material. Food Chemistry 372: 131290. ]

Tasdemir, D., Lack, G., Brun, R., Rüedi, P., Scapozza, L., & Perozzo, R. (2006). Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum fatty acid biosynthesis: evaluation of FabG, FabZ, and FabI as drug targets for flavonoids. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 49(11): 3345-3353. ]

Vignier N and Bouchaud O. 2018. Travel, migration and emerging infectious diseases. Electronic Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 29(3): 175-179. ]

Villanueva-Tiburcio JE, Condezo-Hoyos LA and Asquieri ER. 2010. Antocianinas, ácido ascórbico, polifenoles totales y actividad antioxidante, en la cáscara de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K) McVaugh). Food Science and Technology 30 Suppl. 1: 151-160. ]

Willemann JR, Escher GB, Kaneshima T, Furtado MM, Sant'Ana AS, do Carmo MAV, Azevedo L and Granato D. 2020. Response surface optimization of phenolic compounds extraction from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) seed coat based on chemical properties and bioactivity. Journal of Food Science 85(8): 2358-2367. ]

Yadav S, Jadeja NB, Dafale NA, Purohit HJ and Kapley A. 2019. Chapter 17 - Pharmaceuticals and personal care products mediated antimicrobial resistance: Future challenges. pp. 409-428. In: Prasad MNV, Vithanage M and kapley A. (eds.). Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products: Waste Management and Treatment Technology Emerging Contaminants and Micro Pollutants. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK. 467 p. ]

Yunis-Aguinaga J, Fernandes DC, Eto SF, Claudiano GS, Marcusso PF, Marinho-Neto FA, Fernandes JBK, de Moraes FR and de Moraes JRE. 2016. Dietary camu camu, Myrciaria dubia, enhances immunological response in Nile tilapia. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 58: 284-291. ]

Yuyama K, Aguiar JPL and Yuyama LKO. 2002. Camu-camu: um fruto fantástico como fonte de vitamina C. Acta Amazonica 32(1): 169-174. ]

WHO - World Health Organization. 2021. Infectious diseases. In: WHO ]

Zanatta CF and Mercadante AZ. 2007. Carotenoid composition from the Brazilian tropical fruit camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia). Food Chemistry 101(4): 1526-1532. ]

Received: February 17, 2022; Accepted: May 05, 2022

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License