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Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales

versión impresa ISSN 0370-3908

Rev. acad. colomb. cienc. exact. fis. nat. vol.43 no.168 Bogotá jul./set. 2019

http://dx.doi.org/10.18257/raccefyn.808 

Natural sciences

Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) of Montes de María sub-region: Preliminary list of species from El Carmen de Bolívar (Bolívar, Colombia)

Mariposas (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) de la sub-región de Montes de María: lista preliminar de especies de El Carmen de Bolívar (Bolívar, Colombia)

Daniela Ahumada-C.1  *  , Alejandro Segovia-Paccini1  , Gabriel R. Navas-S.2 

1 Grupo de Investigación en Biología Descriptiva y Aplicada y Grupo de Investigación en Hidrobiología, Programa de Biología, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

2 Grupo de Investigación en Hidrobiología, Programa de Biología, Universidad de Cartagena, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

Abstract

We provide a preliminary list of the diurnal butterflies of El Carmen de Bolivar based on specimens captured between 2015 and 2017 using entomological nets during active searches. Six of the Colombian families of diurnal butterflies were registered. In this study, we provide the distribution of each species throughout the Colombian Caribbean and we confirmed the presence of some species in the region: Emesis fatimella, Eurybia lycisca (Riodinidae) and Urbanus teleus (Hesperiidae). This research contributes to the knowledge of diurnal butterflies in one of the most biodiverse areas of the Caribbean region, which undergoes a progressive transformation of their ecosystems.

Key words: Bolívar; Diurnal Lepidoptera; Species list; Montes de María; Taxonomy

Resumen

Se presenta el listado preliminar de las mariposas diurnas de El Carmen de Bolivar (Bolivar, Colombia) basado en especímenes capturados con redes entomológicas durante búsquedas activas entre los años 2015 y 2017. Se registraron seis de las familias de mariposas diurnas reportadas para Colombia. En este estudio se proporciona la distribución de cada especie en todo el Caribe colombiano, y se confirma la presencia de algunas especies en la región: Emesis fatimella, Eurybia lycisca (Riodinidae) y Urbanus teleus (Hesperiidae). Este estudio contribuye al conocimiento de las mariposas diurnas en una de las áreas con mayor biodiversidad de la región Caribe, que experimenta una transformación progresiva de sus ecosistemas.

Palabras-clave: Bolívar; Lepidópteros diurnos; Lista de especies; Montes de María; Taxonomía

Introduction

The Caribbean is the Colombian region with the largest and best-preserved fragments of Tropical Dry Forest (TDF) (Pizano & García, 2014), but it is also threatened by its increasing transformation (Freitas, et al., 2003; Orozco, et al., 2009; Montero, et al., 2009). The progressive loss of the forest enhances the importance of each fragment and its biodiversity and demands its conservation (Montero, et al., 2009). The tropical dry forest serves to the diagnosis and evaluation of conservation strategies (Vargas-Zapata, et al., 2011) and, therefore, its study is of great scientific interest.

Lepidoptera is the third most studied order of butterflies; the specimens are abundant and easy to collect and to identify (Llorente, et al., 1993; Montero, et al., 2009); they also play important roles in trophic chains and as plant pollinators (Constantino & Andrade-C., 2007). Many species have been used for environmental monitoring as indicators of habitat quality due to their rapid biological cycles, ecological specificity, and their easy evaluation at any time of year (Brown, 1991; Freitas, et al., 2003; Montero, et al., 2009).

The list of Colombian butterflies has undescribed areas of our country and the department of Bolívar is one such areas. The information on species is scarce and its Northern area is thought to house between one to 20 species (REF: Colombian Butterfly Database), whereas peripheral areas remain poorly explored (Andrade-C., 2002).

This study provides a species list of diurnal butterflies from El Carmen de Bolívar, in Montes de María sub-region including new findings for the Colombian Caribbean region. Our results offer basic scientific information for future studies, as the taxonomic listings are not only used for describing the biodiversity but also contribute to the conservation, monitoring, and improvement of the national biodiversity inventory and the elaboration of management plans for natural areas (Mielke, et al., 2008; Núñez, 2009).

Material and methods

Study area. Our study was conducted in Saltones de Mesa (9° 47' 34.23" N 75° 18' 5.58" W) and Camarón (9° 50' 32.32" N 75° 17' 36.53" W), in the jurisdiction of Santo Domingo de Mesa, El Carmen de Bolívar municipality (Figure 1), located in the Northeast of Montes de María, an undulating area with altitudes ranging from 50 to 989 m above sea level (Plataforma de Organizaciones de Desarrollo Europeas en Colombia - PODEC, 2011) and temperatures between 27 and 30 °C exhibiting both a semi-dry and slightly humid climate with a unimodal and bi-seasonal rainfall distribution regime (annual average: 174 mm) (Rangel-Ch. & Carvajal-Cogollo, 2012).

Figure 1 Location of the study area: Camarón and Saltones de Mesa, El Carmen de Bolivar municipality, Bolivar department, Colombia 

The vegetation in the studied areas consists in a mixture of fragments of semi-humid transitional dry forest (as classified by Etter, et al., 2008) in a good state of conservation, areas intervened by deforestation, shrub vegetation, small crops (such as corn, yucca, yam and avocado), and gardens of floral plants such as Asteraceae.

Fieldwork and laboratory. Specimens were collected using entomological nets between 8:00 and 16:00 hours from July 1 to 5, 2015, December 1 to 7, 2016, and May 21 to 27, 2017 with an effort of 152 hours-man in Santo Domingo de Mesa (Figure 1). The butterflies were sacrificed by digital pressure on the thorax and then stored in triangular paper envelopes; later, they were hydrated in a humid chamber and prepared for mounting. All these procedures were carried out according to the collection, preservation, and mounting protocol proposed by Andrade-C., et al. (2013). Specimens were identified using the keys provided by Le Crom, et al. (2004) and the illustrated list of American Butterflies by Warren, et al. (2017). The names of the species were updated and contrasted using the Neotropical Atlas of Lamas (2004). The identification of some species was confirmed with the Entomology Reference Collection of the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales of the National University of Colombia (ICN). The specimens were collected with permission granted through resolution 0751 of June 27, 2014, by the Corporación Autónoma Regional del Canal del Dique (CARDIQUE) and then stored in the research laboratories of the Biology program at Cartagena University (CUDC-INS).

The butterflies were photographed with a Nikon Coolpix compact camera and the pictures were edited with Adobe Photoshop® CS6 software.

Results

We found 67 species distributed in six families, 16 subfamilies, 31 tribes, and 57 genera (Table 1, figures 2-29). The richest family was Nymphalidae with 34 species followed by Pieridae with 12, whereas Lycaenidae was the least representative with three species, followed by Papilionidae and Riodinidae with four species. The most representative genera were Eurema and Phoebis with four and three species, respectively (Table 1).

Table 1 Species of diurnal butterflies registered for Santo Domingo de Mesa, El Carmen de Bolivar, Montes de Maria, Bolivar 

TAXA P/A Distribution in the Source
Family Subfamily Tribe Specie Loc 1 Loc 2 Colombian Caribbean
*Battus polydamas (Linnaeus, 1758) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, Magdalena, Sucre, Bolívar 1,3,4,8,9,11,12
Papilionidae Papilioninae Troidini Parides iphidamas (Fabricius, 1793) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar, Sucre 3,7,11,14
Parides anchises serapis (Boisduval, 1836) 0 1 Atlántico, Córdoba, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Sucre 1,3,5,7,8,9,11,13
Papilionini *Heraclides thoas nealces (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906) 1 0 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, Magdalena 3,4,5,6,8,9
*Anteos maerula (Fabricius, 1775) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, La Guajira 1,5,7,8,9,10
Eurema agave (Cramer, 1775) 1 1 Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba 5,8,9
Eurema albula (Cramer, 1775) 1 0 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, Magdalena 1,2,4,5,6,7,9
*Eurema daira (Godart, 1819) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, Sucre, San Andres 1,2,3,5,6,9,11,13
Coliadinae Phoebis agarithe (Boisduval, 1836) 0 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba 1,2,8,9
*Phoebis philea (Linnaeus, 1763) 0 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba 1,2,5,7,8,9
Pieridae Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus, 1758) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, San Andrés and Providencia, La Guajira, Magdalena, Bolívar 1,2,3,4,5,8,9,10,12,13
*Pyrisitia proterpia (Fabricius, 1775) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar, Córdoba, Bolívar 1,2,5,7,9,12
Pyrisitia venusta venusta (Boisduval, 1836) 0 1 Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá) 7,9
Ascia monuste (Linnaeus, 1764) 0 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, La Guajira, Magdalena, Sucre, Bolívar 1,2,3,4,5,8,9,10,11,12
Pierinae Pierini *Itaballia demophile calydonia (Boisduval, 1836) 0 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, Magdalena, Sucre 1,2,3,4,7,8,9,11
Glutophrissa drusilla (Cramer, 1777) 0 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, Sucre 1,5,8,9,11
Arawacus lincoides (Draudt, 1917) 1 1 Cesar 7
Lycaenidae Theclinae Eumaeini Pseudolycaena marsyas (Linnaeus, 1758) 1 0 Atlántico, Cesar, Córdoba 1,5,7,9
Polyonmatinae Hemiargus hanno (Stoll, 1790) 0 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba 1,5,7,8,9
Eurybiini Eurybia lycisca Westwood, 1851 1 0 Bolívar 15
Riodinidae Riodininae Helicopini *Emesis fatimella (Westwood, 1851) 0 1 Bolívar 15
Nymphidiini Aricoris erostratus (Westwood, 1851) 0 1 Atlántico, Cesar 1,9
Nymphidium onaeum Hewitson, 1869 0 1 Serranía del Perijá, Córdoba 1,9
Danaini Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus, 1758) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, San Andrés and Providencia 1,5,8,9,13
Danainae Danaus gilippus (Cramer, 1775) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, La Guajira, Magdalena 1,4,5,7,8,9,10
Ithomiini *Mechanitis polymnia Linnaeus, 1758 1 1 Córdoba, Serranía del Perijá 5,8,14
Pteronymia aletta (Hewitson, [1855]) 0 1 13
Agraulis vanillae vanillae (Linnaeus, 1758) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, San Andrés, La Guajira 1,5,7,8,9,10,13
Nymphalidae Heliconiini *Dryas iulia (Fabricius, 1775) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, San Andrés and Providencia, Magdalena, Sucre 1,2,5,7,8,9,11,13
Heliconiinae Eueides isabella (Stoll, 1781) 1 1 Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá) 7,8
*Heliconius erato hydara (Hewitson, 1867) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, La Guajira, Sucre 1,2,5,3,6,7,8,9,10,11
Argynnini *Euptoieta hegesia (Cramer, 1779) 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, La Guajira, Magdalena 1,4,5,7,8,9,10
Limenitidinae Limenitidini *Adelpha cytherea daguana (Fruhstorfer, 1913) 1 0 Serranía del Perijá 9
*Biblis hyperia (Cramer, 1779) Atlántico, Cesar (including
Biblidini 0 1 Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba 1,5,6,7,8,9
Ectima thecla 0 1 Serranía del Perijá 8
(Fabricius, 1796)
*Hamadryas Atlántico, Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá)
Ageroniini amphinome 1 0 1,2,7,8,9
(Linnaeus, 1767)
Hamadryas feronia (Linnaeus, 1758) Cesar (including Serranía
Biblidinae 1 0 del Perijá), Córdoba, La 5,8,9,10,11,14
Guajira, Sucre
Epiphelini *Nicaflavilla 1 1 Atlántico, Cesar, Córdoba, 1,2,3,5,7,11
(Godart, [1824]) Sucre
*Haematera pyrame 1 0 Atlántico 1
(Hübner, [1819])
Callicorini Atlántico, Cesar (including
*Callicore pitheas 1 0 Serranía del Perijá), 1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,11
(Latreille, [1813]) Magdalena, Córdoba, Sucre
Atlántico, Cesar (including
Coeini Historis odius dious 1 0 Serranía del Perijá), 2,3,4,5,7,8,9,13
Lamas, 1995 Córdoba, San Andrés and Providencia, Magdalena
*Colobura dirce Atlántico, Cesar (including
Nymphalini dirce (Linnaeus, 1 1 Serranía del Perijá), 2,5,7,8,9,11
Nymphalidae 1758) Córdoba, Sucre
*Anartia amathea (Linnaeus, 1758) Atlántico, Cesar (including
1 1 Serranía del Perijá), 3,4,5,8,9
Córdoba, Magdalena
Atlántico, Cesar (including
Anartia jatrophae (Linnaeus, 1763) Serranía del Perijá),
Victorinini 0 1 Córdoba, San Andrés and 1,3,5,8,9,10,12,13
Providencia, La Guajira, Bolívar
Nymphalinae Atlántico, Cesar (including
*Siproeta stelenes 1 0 Serranía del Perijá), 1,3,5,7,8,9, 11,13
(Linnaeus, 1758) Córdoba, Sucre, San Andrés
Atlántico, Cesar (including
Junoniini Junonia evarete (Cramer, 1979) 1 1 Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, La Guajira, Magdalena, Bolívar 1,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,12
Anthanassa drusilla Cesar (including Serranía
(C. Felder y R. 1 1 del Perijá), Córdoba, 4,5,7,8,9
Felder, 1861) Magdalena
Melitaeini Atlántico, Cesar (including
Chlosyne lacinia 1 0 Serranía del Perijá), 1,3,4,5,7,8,9,11
(Geyer, 1837) Córdoba, Magdalena, Sucre
*Fountainea ryphea
Charaxinae Anaeini ryphea (Cramer, 1775) 0 1 Serranía del Perijá 8,13
*Morpho helenor peleides Kollar, 1850 Cesar (including Serranía
Morphini 0 1 del Perijá), Córdoba, 4,5,7,8,9,14
Magdalena
Brassolini Caligo brasiliensis 1 1 Sucre 11,14
(von Felder,1862)
Haeterini *Pierella luna luna 1 0 Cesar (including Serranía 5,8,9,14
(Fabricius 1793) del Perijá), Córdoba
Cissiapompilia (C. Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba
Felder & R. Felder, 1 1 5,7,8,9
1867)
Nymphalidae Satyrinae *Hermeuptychia hermes (Fabricius, 0 1 Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba, Sucre 5,7,8,9,11,14
1775)
Magneuptychia Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba
Satyrini libye (Linnaeus, 5,7,8,9
1767)
Pareuptychia ocirrhoe (Fabricius, 1776) 1 1 Cesar (including Serranía 5,8,9
del Perijá), Córdoba
*Taygetis laches Atlántico, Cesar (including
laches (Fabricius, 1 0 Serranía del Perijá), 1,5,7,8,9,10,11,14
1793) Córdoba, La Guajira, Sucre
Typhedanus Atlántico, Córdoba, Cesar
undulatus (Hewitson, 0 1 (including Serranía del 1,5,8,9
1867) Perijá)
Eudamminae Eudamini *Urbanus simplicius 1 Cesar (including Serranía 5,8,9,14
(Stoll, 1790) del Perijá), Córdoba
Urbanus teleus 1 15
(Hübner, 1821)
Carcharodini *Nisoniades sp. 0
Hesperiinae Hesperiini *Hylephila phyleus 1 Atlántico, Cesar, 1,7,13,14
(Drury, 1773) Providencia
Hesperiidae Timochares
Erynnini trifasciata (Hewitson, 1868) 0 Atlántico, Cesar 1,7,9
Heliopetes arsalte 1 Cesar (including Serranía 5,7,8
del Perijá), Córdoba
Pyrginae Polyctor sp. 1
Pyrgus orcus (Stoll, 1 Cesar (including Serranía 5,7,8,9
1780) del Perijá), Córdoba
Timochreon satyrus Cesar (including Serranía del Perijá), Córdoba
(C. Felder & R. 0 1 5,6,7,8
Felder, 1867)

P/A: Presence/Absence, Loc 1: Saltones de Mesa, Loc 2: Camarón. The column "Source" lists the publications made in the Colombian Caribbean recording the presence of species of diurnal butterflies in the departments of Atlántico: 1 = Montero, et al. (2009), 2 = Boom-Urueta, et al. (2013), 3 = Prince-Chacón, et al. (2011); Magdalena: 4 = Vargas-Zapata, et al. (2011); Córdoba: 5 = Campos-Salazar, et al. (2011); Cesar: 6 = Pulido-B. & Andrade-C. (2007), 7 = Erazo & González-Montaña (2008), 8 = Pulido-B. & Andrade-C. (2009), 9 = Campos-Salazar & Andrade-C. (2009); La Guajira: 10 = Moreno-M. & Acuña-Vargas (2015); Sucre: 11= Mercado-Gómez, et al. (2018); Bolivar: 12= Ahumada-C. (2017); San Andrés and Providencia Islands: 13 = Emmel (1975); and records for the Caribbian region without specific location: 14 = Andrade-C. (2002). Additionally, number fifteen (15) was used to indicate the new records for the Colombian Caribbean. The asterisk (*) refers to the species shown in figures 2-29.

Figures 2-29 Representatives of the six families of diurnal butterflies found in Santo Domingo de Mesa. Dorsal face to the left, ventral face to the right. Papilionidae (2). 2. Heraclides thoas (CUDC-INS 838). Pieridae (3-7). 3. Anteos maerula (CUDC-INS 587), 4. Eurema daira (CUDC-INS 571). Phoebis sennae (CUDC-INS 616), 6. Pyrisitia proterpia (CUDC-INS 662), 7. Itaballia demophile (CUDC-INS 584). Riodininae (8): 8. Emesis fatimella (CUDC-INS 772). Nymphalidae (9-26) 9. Mechanitis polymnia (CUDC-INS 877), 10. Dryas iulia (CUDC-INS 768), 11. Heliconius erato (CUDC-INS 814), 12. Euptoieta hegesia (CUDC-INS 789), 13. Adelpha cytherea daguana (CUDC-INS 911), 14. Biblis hyperia (CUDC-INS 673), 15. Hamadryas amphinome (CUDC-INS 808), 16. Nica flavilla (CUDC-INS 907), 17. Haematera pyrame (CUDC-INS 807), 18. Callicore pitheas (CUDC-INS 692), 19. Colobura dirce (CUDC-INS 711), 20. Anartia amathea (CUDC-INS 918), 21. Siproeta stelenes (CUDC-INS 954), 22. Fountainea ryphea ryphea (CUDC-INS 804), 23. Morpho helenor peileides (CUDC-INS 906), 24. Pierella luna luna (CUDC-INS 679), 25. Hermeuptychia Hermes (CUDC-INS 844), 26. Taygetis thamyra (CUDC-INS 957). Hesperiidae (27-29): 27. Urbanus simplicius (CUDC-INS 1030), 28. Nisoniades sp. (CUDC-INS 960), 29. Hylephila phyleus (CUDC-INS 966) 

The following are the geographical distributions of the species registered for the first time in the Colombian Caribbean:

Family Riodinidae

Eurybia lycisca Westwood, 1851

Examined material (Annexed, https://www.raccefyn.co/index.php/raccefyn/article/view/808/2551): 1c?. COLOMBIA, Bolivar, El Carmen de Bolivar, Santo Domingo de Mesa, Saltones de Mesa, 9° 47' 34.23" N 75° 18' 5.58" W, 110 m, entomological net, 1-7 xii. 2016, H. Vides Leg. CUDC-INS-654.

Distribution: From the southeast of México to Ecuador (Warren, et al., 2017). In Colombia, this species has been recorded in the Andean regions of Quindío and Antioquia departments (Orozco, et al., 2009, Marín-Gómez, et al., 2011) and in the Pacific region of Nariño and Chocó departments (Palacios & Constantino, 2006, Vargas-Ch. & Salazar, 2014).

Emesis fatimella (Westwood, 1851)

Examined material (Annexed, https://www.raccefyn.co/index.php/raccefyn/article/view/808/2551): 1cC. COLOMBIA, Bolivar, El Carmen de Bolivar, Santo Domingo de Mesa, Camarón, 9°50'32.32"N 75°17'36.53"W, 91 m, entomological net, 1-5. vii. 2015, A. Sandoval, A. Segovia-Paccini, G. Ríos, D. Ahumada-C. and D. Rodríguez Leg.CUDC-INS 772 (Figure 8).

Distribution: From México to Colombia, Guianas and Trinidad (Warren, et al., 2017). In Colombia, this species has been recorded in the Pacific region of Chocó department (Vargas-Ch. & Salazar, 2014) and in the Amazon region (Andrade-C., et al., 2015) in Vaupés Department (Rodríguez & Miller, 2013).

Family Hesperiidae

Urbanus teleus (Hübner, 1821)

Examined material (Annexed, https://www.raccef.yn.co/index.php/raccefyn/article/view/808/2551): 1cC, 1?. COLOMBIA, Bolivar, El Carmen de Bolivar, Santo Domingo de Mesa, Camarón, 9°50'32.32"N 75°17'36.53"W, 91 m, entomological net, 1-5. vii. 2015, A. Sandoval, A. Segovia-Paccini, G. Ríos, D. Ahumada-C. and D. Rodríguez Leg. CUDC-INS 1038, 1039.

Distribution: from Texas in the USA to Argentina (Valencia, et al., 2005, Warren, et al., 2017). In Colombia, it has been registered for the Andean region (González & Andrade-C., 2008) in the departments of Tolima (Camero, et al., 2007), Cundinamarca (Suárez, 2014), Antioquia (Orozco, et al., 2009), Caldas (Ríos-Málaver, 2007) and Santander (Quintero, et al., 2014). In the Pacific region, it has been registered for Valle del Cauca department (Zambrano-González & Ortiz-Ordóñez, 2009, Ascuntar-Osnas, et al., 2010, Gaviria-Ortiz & Henao-Bañol, 2011), and in the Orinoquia region, in the Casanare department (Urbano, et al., 2014).

Discussion

Six families of Neotropical butterflies were found in Santo Domingo de Mesa coinciding with observations by Emmel (1975), Pulido-B. & Andrade-C. (2007, 2009), Campos & Andrade-C. (2009), Montero, et al. (2009), Campos-Salazar, et al. (2011), Prince-Chacón, et al. (2011), Vargas-Zapata, et al. (2011), Boom-Uruetea, et al. (2013), and Moreno-M. & Acuña-Vargas (2015) in tropical dry forest fragments in the Caribbean region.

In this study, we registered 67 species, 12 more than those recorded by Mercado-Gómez, et al. (2018) for the Serranía de la Coraza, Montes de María, Sucre. As expected in the Neotropics (Brown, 1996, Marín-Gómez, et al., 2011), the Nymphalidae was the family with the most subfamilies and species. Nymphalidae has been found to be associated with the dry forests of Montes de María, in Sucre department (Mercado-Gómez, et al., 2018), and in all the Caribbean plain (Campos-Salazar & Andrade-C., 2009; Campos-Salazar, et al., 2011, Montero, et al., 2009, Prince-Chacón, et al., 2011 Moreno-M. & Acuña-Vargas, 2015) including the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta (Vargas-Zapata, et al., 2011). The Pieridae family was the second family with the highest number of species coinciding with the study by Campos-Salazar, et al. (2011) in Córdoba department and Vargas-Zapata, et al. (2011) in Magdalena department.

Papilionidae had a low richness, which coincides with the findings by Montero, et al. (2009) and Prince-Chacón, et al. (2011) for Atlántico department, and so did Riodinidae, which coincided with the results obtained for the departments of Sucre (Montes de María) by Mercado-Gómez, et al. (2018), Córdoba by Campos-Salazar, et al. (2011), Atlántico by Boom-Urueta, et al. (2013), and Magdalena by Vargas-Zapata, et al. (2011). The Lycaenidae family also registered a low richness, which differs from studies conducted in the Neotropics where it is considered one of the most diverse families (Brown, 1996, Marín-Gómez, et al., 2011).

Conclusions and recommendations

This is the first study on diurnal butterflies in Montes de María, Bolívar. We provide a preliminary list of species confirming the presence of three species for the Colombian Caribbean. Throughout history, the Montes de María subregion has been characterized by its difficult access but this has improved greatly since the post-conflict, thus opening the possibility of giving the first steps to investigate the insects in the area and highlighting the need of greater scientific explorations to establish the richness of this region, one of the most biodiverse areas of the Colombian Caribbean, which has been subjected to processes of agricultural and livestock transformation.

Acknowledgements

We thank Adolfo Mulet, Gloribeth Ríos, Ada Sandoval, Hermen González, Hugo Vides, Carolina Rodríguez, and the students of Escuela de Ciudadanía Medio Ambiente, Fauna y Ordenamiento territorial (Corporación Desarrollo Solidario - CDS) for their help during the samplings. Hermen González and Hugo Vides for their collaboration in the laboratory work. Evelio Mendoza, Ronald Mendoza, Heidy Mendoza (Saltones de Mesa), Felipe González, and Geovaldis González (Camarón) for allowing us to carry out this investigation in their villages and opening the doors of their communities. Yuleidis Rodriguez for supplying some photographs. Hugo Vides and Indiana Ríos for their recommendations in the drafting of the manuscript. Lina Cabarcas, Laura Contreras, Diego Gil, and Alexandria Gabb for their comments on the English translation of the document. Professor Gonzalo Andrade and his students for their collaboration at the ICN at Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Finally, we thank CDS, José Ahumada, and Estela Cabarcas for financing this study, as well as the funds received from Cartagena University (Minutes 065-2018).

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Editor: Marta Patricia Pinilla

Author contributions Daniela Ahumada-C. and Alejandro Segovia-Paccini: Field work, laboratory, and generation of species list. Daniela Ahumada-C.: Manuscript writing and map design. Alejandro Segovia-Paccini and Gabriel R. Navas-S.: Figures preparation. All authors reviewed the manuscript.

Conflicts of interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

Annex. List of codes of specimens with their taxonomic identification. See the Annex in: https://www.raccefyn.co/index.php/raccefyn/article/view/808/2551

Recibido: 23 de Diciembre de 2018; Aprobado: 26 de Julio de 2019

*Corresponding autor: Daniela Ahumada-C; dahumadac1@unicartagena.edu.co

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