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Revista Científica General José María Córdova

Print version ISSN 1900-6586

Rev. Cient. Gen. José María Córdova vol.16 no.22 Bogotá Apr./June 2018 


Two instruments to measure perceptions of the dual model in entrepreneurs and graduates: A Colombian perspective

Dos instrumentos para medir percepciones del modelo dual en empresarios y en egresados. Una perspectiva colombiana

Dois instrumentos para medir as percepçoes do modelo duplo em empresários e graduados. Uma perspectiva colombiana

Deux instruments pour mesurer les perceptions du modèle dual chez les entrepreneurs et les diplômés. Une perspective colombienne

Goe Rojas Hernández1 

1 Fundación Universitaria Empresarial de la Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá, Uniempresarial, Bogotá, Colombia. - Contact:


Two instruments are proposed to survey the perceptions of the dual model of entrepreneurs and Uniempresarial graduates. The design and validation of these instruments were conceived as a methodological tool for the study and improvement of the model, in a Latin American context. The results show that these perceptions enable the understanding of the model’s educational impact, as an option for bridging gaps between the academy and business. It is concluded that the instrument is a valuable tool to evaluate the entrepreneurs’ perceptions of how dual education contributes to attaining the required human talent, and the perceptions of graduates on the relevance of their training and the benefits and the advantages it affords to enter the business sector. These measurement instruments could be useful for new and comparative studies that lead to relevant conclusions to improve the dual model and redound in the learning of trainees.

Keywords: dual education; entrepreneurs; graduates; measurement instrument; perceptions


Se proponen dos instrumentos para la medición de percepciones del modelo dual, de empresarios y egresados de Uniempresarial. El diseño y validación de dichos instrumentos se concibieron como una herramienta metodológica para la investigación y mejoramiento del modelo, en un contexto latinoamericano. Se constató que las percepciones permiten comprender el impacto de formación del modelo, como opción para el cierre de brechas entre la academia y la empresa. Se concluye que el instrumento, en su conjunto, permite evaluar percepciones de empresarios de cómo la formación dual les aporta para tener el talento humano requerido y percepciones de egresados sobre la pertinencia de su formación y el beneficio que representa para vincularse al sector empresarial. Se espera que los instrumentos de medición sirvan para nuevas investigaciones y estudios comparativos que lleven a conclusiones relevantes para mejorar el modelo dual y que redunden en el aprendizaje de las personas en formación.

Palabras claves: egresados; empresarios; formación dual; instrumento de medición; percepciones


Sáo propostos dois instrumentos para a mediçâo das percepçoes do modelo dual, dos empresarios e graduados da Uniempresarial. O design e a validaçao desses instrumentos foram concebidos como uma ferramenta metodológica para a investigaçâo e melhoria do modelo, em um contexto latino-americano. Verificou-se que as percepçoes nos permitem compreender o impacto da formaçâo do modelo, como uma opçao para fechar lacunas entre a academia e a empresa. Conclui-se que o instrumento, como um todo, permite avaliar as percepçoes dos negócios de como a formaçâo dual de educaçâo contribui para ter o talento humano exigido e as percepçoes dos graduados sobre a relevância de sua formaçâo e o beneficio que representa para ser vinculado ao sector empresarial. Espera-se que os instrumentos de mediçao sirvam para novas pesquisas e estudos comparativos que conduzam a conclusoes relevantes para melhorar o modelo duplo e redundar na aprendizagem de estagiários.

Palavras-chave: empresários; graduados; instrumento de mediçao; percepçoes; treinamento duplo


Deux instruments sont proposés pour la mesure des perceptions du modèle dual, des entrepreneurs et diplômés de Uniempresarial. La conception et la validation de ces instruments ont été conçues comme un outil méthodologique pour la recherche et l’amélioration du modèle, dans un contexte latino-américain. On constaté que les perceptions nous permettent de comprendre l’impact de la formation du modèle comme une option pour combler les lacunes entre l’académie et l’entreprise. On conclut que, dans l’ensemble, l’instrument permet d’évaluer les perceptions des entrepreneurs sur la façon dont l’éducation en alternance contribue à atteindre le talent humain requis et la perception des diplômés quant à la pertinence de leur formation et aux bénéfices et avantages qu’elle procure lors d’entrer dans le secteur des entreprises. Ces instruments de mesure pourraient être utiles pour des études nouvelles et comparatives qui conduisent à des conclusions pertinentes pour améliorer le modèle dual et améliorer l’apprentissage des stagiaires.

Mots-clés : diplômés; entrepreneurs; formation en alternance; instrument de mesure; perceptions


In Latin America, and Colombia is not the exception, the gap between the academy and business has been a topic of deep reflection. Many efforts have been made by governments and the private sector to narrow this gap. Thus, initiatives emerge such as the German dual model, which the Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá puts into context, creating Uniempresarial. This higher education institution’s model is based on the German dual education model adapted to Latin America, to provide a relevant alternative to the development of human talent at a higher education level.

Since its inception, Uniempresarial has consolidated a culture of strategic management, based on measurements that promote the continuous improvement of its quality educational system. After a few years of operation and contribution to the training of young adults to develop the talent required by companies, the institution’s organizational development required the creation of instruments to measure the perceptions of entrepreneurs and graduates to verify whether the model satisfied expectations that brought about its creation, and under which programs were adopted at a professional university level, obtaining the endorsement of the Ministry of National Education.

The two measuring instruments were developed for Uniempresarial within the framework of a doctoral thesis in pedagogy (Rojas, 2014), in compliance with the scientific rigor required for the design of this type of measurement tools. The tools were tested with appropriate samples of information using statistical software, applied to a database of graduates and entrepreneurs linked to Uniempresarial.

A descriptive statistical analysis was completed based on the implementation of these instruments, and on the information obtained, as well as a univariate analysis using contingency tables and a multivariate analysis, through exploratory factor analysis.

The designed instruments were validated in two pilot tests that yielded a Cronbach’s Alpha greater than 0.8 (Rojas, 2015). The instrument for entrepreneurs consists of 58 items and 48 items for graduates, grouped in dimensions that, in turn, consist of different categories with their respective indicator.

Perception measurements in graduates and entrepreneurs are becoming increasingly important in higher education institutions to measure the impact of their pedagogical model. However, these instruments are mostly not shared, which makes it challenging to compare instruments of this nature. The specialized literature on dual education shows that the idea of perception has been the object of psychology, and focuses on what happens in people’s minds according to an experience previously lived by their senses; however, in qualitative research of a social nature, it is the basis to determine the perception of a service (Gallo, 2001). Thus, our instruments have been designed to measure the perceptions of students and entrepreneurs from the quality of service. This approach allows discovering trends of professional performance; therefore, foreseeing the scope of its design and validity is essential, through the use of relevant parameters of specific software, as well as the designation of suitable samples.


The selected sociological neo-institutionalism approach prompts qualitative research that uses documentary research with a hermeneutical approach. This strategy is accompanied by interviews with experts to qualify the view on the limits and possibilities from the current normative framework, in parallel, the information delivered and its assessment allows defining the existing capacities and the lines of development of institutional capacities.

The sources considered are the rules and regulations, information systems, and members of the Army, including professional reserve officers, as well as documents and studies associated with the topic of disasters or with the very role of the army in disasters.

The processes of institutional change start, in general, from an evaluation of the existing, then, the formulation of the changes to be introduced; in this case, as adjustments in regulations and abilities. Subsequently, the changes are adopted and implemented, requiring a process of organizational communication and innovation in the technologies that make institutional knowledge management operational1. This approach of continuity and institutional change is present throughout the study.

Questionnaire addressed to graduates

Table 1 shows the dimensions and indicators used to create the tool for graduates.

Table 1 Dimensions and indicators-survey for graduates 

Source: Research-La formación dual de Uniempresarial en la percepción de egresados y empresarios-2014.

Validation of the instrument for graduates:

A pilot test of 19 individuals was carried out for graduates to test the suitability of the instruments. The questions, based on Likert, yielded a Cronbach’s Alpha of .966 (considering that the minimum required is .6, according to the Cronbach’s Alpha theory), which proved its reliability to be applied later to the group of graduates by disposition.

The tabulated Likert-type data were uploaded to the SPSS software, version 21, to obtain the different statistical data and thus proceed with the respective analysis.

The individual surveys to validate the instrument were completed either via the Internet or in person.


Once the instrument for graduates was validated, these surveys were made available through the Institution’s area for graduates some through surveys available in free Internet software and others in events for graduates, without detecting difficulties or hesitations in the target public for its completion.

Questionnaire addressed to entrepreneurs:

A questionnaire was designed using Likert questions for a directed interview, complemented by closed questions (dichotomous and with several response alternatives), and a minimum percentage of open questions (Hernández, Fernández, and Baptista, 1991).

The questionnaire consists of 58 items, 45 in the Likert scale. The answers, according to the questions, were designed as follows:

  • 1. Totally disagree; 2. Disagree; 3; Agree nor disagree (indifferent); 4. Agree; 5. Totally agree

  • 1. Not at all important; 2. Unimportant; 3. Indifferent 4. Important; 5. Very important

  • 1. Very inferior; 2. Inferior; 3. Superior nor inferior (indifferent); 4. Superior; 5. Much superior

Complemented with 11 closed questions, which also provided valuable information for this work; and two open questions that were codified at the time of the tabulation if similarities in the answers were found, which usually happens with these questions.

For its operationalization, the questionnaire was grouped by dimensions (Abreu, 2012) as shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Dimensions and indicators survey for entrepreneurs 

Source: Prepared by the author.

Validation of the instrument for entrepreneurs:

The tabulated Likert data was uploaded to the SPSS software, version 21, to extract the different statistical data and then proceed with the respective analysis.

To test the suitability of the instruments, a pilot test for entrepreneurs was conducted with 20 individuals, which yielded in the questions based on Likert, a Cronbach’s alpha of .850 (considering that the minimum required is .6, according to the Cronbach’s Alpha theory), which proved its reliability to be applied later to the group of entrepreneurs.


After the validation of the pilot test for entrepreneurs, the survey was made available through a specialized research cojmpany (Global Research) who were provided with instructions and training to the surveyors. No difficulties or hesitations were detected in the target public for its completion.



In the design of these instruments to measure the perception of entrepreneurs and graduates, regarding the pedagogical models of education and with the intention that they could be validated using statistical software, that would provide certainty of their reliability it was necessary to have a majority percentage of Likert questions.

Likewise, it was found that grouping each of the questions that represent an indicator within the research, in dimensions and categories, made it easier to design these tools, which would respond to the main objectives of the research for which they were designed.

On the other hand, the validation of the instruments in pilot tests, before their final implementation to the representative samples, ensured the reliability and ease of the application of the same.


The author expresses her gratitude to Dr. Salvador Ceja Oseguera, director of the doctoral thesis in which the instrument was designed and on which this article is based and applied for the first time. Also, to the Business University Foundation of the Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá, Uniempresarial, for its unconditional support in the different studies carried out and in its professional development.


Abreu, J. (2012). Constructos, Variables, Dimensiones, Indicadores y Congruencia. Daena, International journal of Good Consciente, 7(3), pp. 123-130. [ Links ]

Gallo, G. (2001). Posicionamiento: el caso latinoamericano. Bogotá: Mac Graw Hill Interamericana, S.A. [ Links ]

Hernández, Roberto, Fernández, Carlos & Baptista, Pilar (1991). Metodología de la investigación. México: McGraw - Hill Interamericana de México, S.A. [ Links ]

Rojas Hernández, G. (2014) La formación Dual de Uniempresarial en la Percepción de Egresados y Empresarios. (Tésis doctoral en pedagogía. Director: Dr. Salvador Ceja Oseguera). México: Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla. [ Links ]

Rojas Hernández, G. (2015). La formación dual en Colombia. El caso de la Fundación Universitaria de la Cámara de Comercio de Bogotá Uniempresarial: los desafíos actuales en la percepción de egresados y empresarios. Rev. Cient. Gen. José María Córdova 13(15), 145-181 [ Links ]

Disclaimer The author states that she has no conflicts of interest for the publication of this article.

Funding The author does not declare a source of funding for the fulfillment of this article.

About the authors Goe Rojas Hernández. PhD in Pedagogy at the Popular University of the State of Puebla, Mexico UPAEP Researcher and Vice-rector ofthe Business University Foundation of the Chamber of Commerce of Bogotá, Uniempresarial

1Siguiendo a Peter Senge (1990) y Kurt Lewin (citado por Garzón, M. 2005, 41-42).

Received: December 27, 2017; Accepted: March 14, 2018

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License