SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.11 issue22EDITORIALDEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION OF CALIBRATION METHODS FOR EQUIPMENT USED IN VISUAL HEALTH (KERATOMETERS, LENSOMETERS AND TONOMETERS), IMPLEMENTED IN THE HOSPITAL UNIVERSITARIO DE SAN VICENTE FUNDACIÓN author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Article

Indicators

Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google

Share


Revista Ingeniería Biomédica

Print version ISSN 1909-9762

Rev. ing. biomed. vol.11 no.22 Medellín July/Dec. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.24050/19099762.n22.2017.1178 

Artículos originales

PROPERTIES OF ANTIBACTERIAL NANO TEXTILE FOR USE IN HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENTS

PROPIEDADES DEL NANOTEXTIL ANTIBACTERIANO PARA SU USO EN ENTORNOSM HOSPITALARIOS

PROPRIEDADES DO NANO TÊXTIL ANTIBACTERIANO PARA SEU USO EM MEIOS HOSPITALARES

M. L Mejía1  , J. Zapata1  , D. P Cuesta2  , I.C. Ortiz3  , L.E. Botero3  , B. J. Galeano1  , N. J. Escobar1  , L. M. Hoyos3 

1Bioengineering Group, Bolivarian Pontifical University, Medellin, Colombia.

2Public Health Group, Bolivarian Pontifical University, Medellin, Colombia.

3Systems Biology Group, Bolivarian Pontifical University, Medellin, Colombia.

Abstract

In hospital environments, there are several problems related to Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs), contaminated hospital textiles, can contribute to the spread and transmission of (HAIs), due to retention of viruses and bacteria. The antibacterial metallic nanoparticles immersed in hospital textiles can allow reduction of microorganisms. This paper presents a technological surveillance of the principal properties of antibacterial nanotextiles to be used in hospital environments, based on international standards. Initially, the search equation was determined for “antibacterial” AND “nanoparticle.” Subsequently, the main properties were selected, by means of a multiple authors’ review. Afterwards, the properties were related to international standards. Finally, we present the results found associated to the materials used to develop nonwoven textiles, and their properties for hospital environments, the sizes of samples and also the equipment required for characterization.

Key words: Nanoparticles; hospital environments; antibacterial; hospital textiles; non-woven textile; properties; Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs)

Resumen

En los ambientes hospitalarios, existen varios problemas relacionados con las infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud (HAI, por sus siglas en inglés), los tejidos hospitalarios contaminados, pueden contribuir a la propagación y transmisión de los HAIs, debido a la retención de virus y bacterias. Las nanopartículas metálicas antibacterianas sumergidas en tejidos hospitalarios permiten reducir los microorganismos. Este documento presenta una vigilancia tecnológica de las principales propiedades del nanotextil antibacteriano para uso en ambientes hospitalarios, basados en estándares internacionales. Inicialmente, la ecuación de búsqueda se determinó "antibacteriano" Y "nanopartícula". Posteriormente, se seleccionaron las principales propiedades, mediante la revisión de diferentes autores. Luego, las propiedades se relacionaron con los estándares internacionales. Finalmente, se presentan los resultados encontrados asociados a los materiales utilizados para el desarrollo de materiales no tejidos y sus propiedades para ambientes hospitalarios, tamaños de muestras y también el equipo necesario para la caracterización.

Palabras-clave: Nanopartículas; entornos hospitalarios; antibacterianos; tejidos hospitalarios; tejidos no tejidos; propiedades; infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria (IAS)

Resumo

Nos ambientes hospitaleiros, existem vários problemas relacionados com as infecções associadas à atenção da saúde (HAI), os tecidos hospitalários contaminados, podem contribuir à propagação e transmissão dos HAIs, devido à retenção de vírus e bactérias. As nano partículas metálicas antibacterianas submergidas em tecidos hospitalários permitem reduzir os microorganismos. Este documento apresenta uma vigilância tecnológica das principais propriedades do nano têxtil antibacteriano para uso em ambientes hospitalários, baseados em padrões internacionais. Inicialmente, a equação de busca determinou-se "antibacteriano" e "nano partícula". Posteriormente, selecionaram-se as principais propriedades, mediante a revisão de diferentes autores. Posteriormente, as propriedades relacionaram-se com os padrões internacionais. Finalmente, apresentam-se os resultados encontrados associados aos materiais utilizados para o desenvolvimento de tecidos não tecidos e suas propriedades para ambientes hospitaleiros, tamanhos de amostras e também a equipe necessária para a caracterização.

Palavras-Chave: Nano partículas; meios hospitalários; antibacterianos; tecidos hospitalários; tecidos não tecidos; propriedades; infecções associadas à assistência sanitária (IAS)

I. Introduction

The healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represents a high problem in the hospital environments, due to viruses and bacteria adhere to the surfaces of hospital textiles, these microorganisms are derived from bodily substances, such as skin, feces, blood, urine and vomiting1-5. Current autoclave laundry and disinfection processes remove dirt but are far from sterile so they are not sufficient to interrupt the transmission of (HAIs)6.

The nanotechnology is a science, that represents an opportunity to improve properties of materials, by means of the use of particles of sizes of 10-9m incorporated in them7. Nano-particles can be applied in textile material to provide properties such as (self-cleaning surfaces, stain resistance, water repellency, electrical conductivity, antimicrobial resistance, hydrophilicity or controlled hydrophobicity, wrinkle resistance, anti-static, antiodor, fire resistance, UV radiation protection, abrasion resistance, shrink resistance, etc.)7. Nanoparticles have a high surface area ratio and a high energy surface, have a better affinity for the fabric, due to of their nanometric size penetrate deeper into the fibers8.

Metal and metal oxide antibacterial nanoparticles immersed in textiles provide protection properties against microorganisms9. A type of metal antibacterial nanoparticle is those silver (Ag), its microbicide mechanism acts suppressing respiration and microbial basal metabolism, inhibiting its multiplication and growth10. The application of silver nanoparticles in textiles makes them resistant to odors, so they are applied in socks in order to inhibit the growth of bacteria8.

The oxide metal antibacterial nanoparticles are Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Zinc oxide (ZnO) these have photocatalytic activity, being irradiated by ultraviolet light with greater energy than their band separations, electrons and holes interact with the oxygen and H2O molecules that are adsorbed on the surface of the nanoparticles to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), hydroxyl radical, etc., which interfere with the organic material by decomposing the bacteria7,11-17.

Non-woven textiles are widely used in hospital environments due to their random fiber conformation, filtration capacity, permeability and porosity18-20. The properties of the nonwoven textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles incorporated in their fibers are the reason of the present study, in which a technological surveillance was developed around the subject.

II. Methodology

A technological surveillance was developed using the search equation with the terms "antibacterial" and "nanoparticles" through the use of the Scopus database, these contains the largest bibliographical references of scientific literature, with over 18,000 titles from 5,000 international publishers21. The term “Antibacterial”, and the term “nanoparticles” produces 4,099 results. In order to limit the results, the term "electrospun" was added to the search equation, which produced a total of 93 results.

A. Analysis of documents by author. Between 2007 and 2017, 10 authors have published about the properties that antibacterial nanoparticles offer to nonwoven. Among the most relevant authors are Kim, H.Y. with 4 publications, Pant, H.R with 4 publications also, Bai, J; Cui, W; Fan, C; Heo, D.N; Kim, C.S; Kwon, I.K; Lee, S.J; Li, C; with 3 publications each one of them (Table 1)22:

Table 1 Authors and Documents 

Author Number of documents
Kim, H.Y 4
Pant, H.R 4
Bai, J 3
Cui, W 3
Fan, C 3
Heo, D.N 3
Kim, C.S 3
Kwon, I.K 3
Lee, S.J 3
Li, C 3

The Fig. 1, shows the relationship between the authors and the total number of articles associated with each of them22:

Figure 1 Documents by author 

B. Properties analyzed by authors. Technological surveillance will be approached from the 10 authors mentioned above, due to it is pertinent to consider the properties antimicrobial of nonwoven fabric for hospital environments, these authors recognize the characterization of this type of material as their main objective.

1. Weight: Mass per unit area (g/m2), it was measured by dividing the mass and area of this material23-25.

2. Thickness: Sample thicknesses were measured using a digital micrometer with an accuracy of 1μm. 10 parallel measurements were taken for each sample and mean values were used as the film thickness26-31.

3. Air Permeability: This procedure allows the measurement of the amount of air sucked laterally between the ring and the sample. Air permeability is expressed in units of millimeters over seconds (mm/s)23,30,32-35.

4. Contact angle measurement (WCA): Is a procedure to calculate the surface properties (surface tension and dispersion) of a polar or non-polar liquid on a substrate27,36,37.

5. Water Absorption: This method determines the relative water absorption rate of the plastics when they are submerged23,37,38.

6. Stability of nanoparticles: Accelerated washing tests evaluate color fastness and staining of all types of textiles. This test is used to investigate the stability of the nanoparticles in the samples. The samples are tested under suitable conditions of temperature, detergent solution, bleaching and abrasive action in such a way that the color change is similar to that which occurs in five handwashing with or without chlorine39,40.

7. Water vapor permeability (WVT): This method allows to determine the passage of water vapor through plastic films, which are not more than 32mm of thick23,30,31,33,34,41.

8. Flammability test: This procedure makes it possible to determine the response of the polymer materials to the flame under controlled laboratory conditions, thereby indicating their acceptability with regard to flammability for a particular application42.

9. Tensile Strength: This procedure allows the determination of the maximum tensile stress that the nonwoven material can withstand before breaking27-29,43-45.

10. Abrasion resistance: This procedure quantitatively determines the duration of the nonwoven in its normal use, subjecting it under laboratory conditions to an Martindale abrasion tester23.

C. Relationship of properties with international Standards. The properties mentioned by the authors are related to international standards (Table 2), in order to provide a higher quality applicable to non-woven textiles containing antibacterial nanoparticles, improving the healthiness in the hospital environment.

Table 2 Relationship of Properties with International Standards 

Properties International Standards
Weight NTC 2598-EN29073-1
Thickness NTC2599-EN29073-2
Air Permeability ASTM D737
Contact angle measurement (WCA) ASTM D7490
Water Absorption ASTM D570
Stability of nanoparticles AATCC 61 2(A)
Water vapor permeability (WVT) ASTM E96
Flammability test UL94
Tensile Strength NTC 2600-ISO9073
Abrasion resistance ASTM D3884

III. Results and Discussion

In this study, a technological surveillance was developed around the subject of the properties of non-woven textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles incorporated, for use in covers and curtains of hospital environments. Among the most notable results are the materials used to develop nonwoven textiles, the sizes used for the evaluation of the properties and the equipment used for their morphological and mechanical characterization.

A. Materials used to develop nonwoven textiles

The authors in their respective studies developed nonwoven textiles from different materials according to their properties and the application of these (Table 3).

Table 3 Materials Used to Develop Nonwoven Textiles 

Materials Properties of materials Application of nonwoven
Nylon (PA6) 6-Polyamide 6 It is a biodegradable, biocompatible and synthetic polymeric material that has good mechanical properties, such as its hardness, elasticity, toughness and resistance to abrasion, wear, oils, heat and chemical and the capacity of easy processing. It is used in automobile parts, wipes, battery separators, synthetic suede, brush bristles and protective garments. Nanofibers of nylon-6 have been reported as effective means of water filtration.
Gelatin type A It is a polymer with compositions and biological properties almost identical to those of collagen, it is soluble in water and economical. Gelatin nanofibers are used for tissue scaffolds, wound healing, health care devices and other biomedical applications.
Polyimide (PI) PI are a class of high performance polymers that combine high thermal stability with good mechanical properties, heat resistance and chemical resistance to solvents. It features various applications, including protective clothing for firefighters and filtration membranes.
Polyurethane (PU) It has properties such as low temperature flexibility, abrasion resistance, controllable hardness, transparency, and excellent hydrolytic stability. Polyurethanes have been used in garments and textile coatings for garments, such as raincoats and industrial safety clothing.
Polylactide (PLA) It has excellent mechanical properties, is compostable, biocompatible with respect to cells, tissues and organs and is biodegradable. PLA can be used to prepare foams, films, fibers and nonwoven.
Polyester (PET) It is semi-crystalline, transparent and thermoplastic with high strength. It is widely used to produce fibers, films and packaging materials with high barrier properties, clothing, and industrial fabrics.
Agar, k-carrageenan and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) They are biodegradable, biocompatible, renewable annually and abundantly available. With good property of formation of antimicrobial films.
Poly (lactic-coglycolic acid) (PLGA) PLGA formed by polyglycolic acid (PGA) and polylactic acid (PLA) is biocompatible and biodegradable material. It is used as a platform for the release of TiO2 nanoparticles into the environment.
Polypropylene (PP) The fibers are economical, lightweight, have high chemical resistance and high absorbency. It is used for sanitary applications such as surgical masks, diapers, filters, bands, etc., that need to show antibacterial effects.

This table indicates that both synthetic and natural polymers are being used for use in hospital environments due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as good mechanical properties. Nylon-6 is the most widely used polymer for the creation of non-woven antibacterial textiles as indicated by multiple authors, so further research is recommended around this material to better understand their properties with embedded nanoparticles.

B. Properties, sizes and equipment

In various articles analyzed in the present investigation, about the properties of nonwoven textile with antibacterial nanoparticles immersed in it. The authors reported sample sizes used for their characterization and equipment to develop these assessments (Table 4).

Table 4 Properties, Sizes and Equipment 

Properties Sample sizes Equipment
Weight Three test pieces, each of a minimum area of 50,000 mm2. Scales
Thickness Three test pieces, each of a minimum area of 2500 mm2. Micrometer
Air Permeability Ten circular test pieces, each of a minimum area of 5 cm2. Frazier Air Permeability Tester
Contact angle measurement (WCA) Three test pieces, each of a minimum area of 3x10 cm. Contact angle analyzer
Water Absorption Three samples of diameter 1,5 cm and a thickness of 1 mm Dryer oven Scales Watch crystal
Stability of nanoparticles Three sample sizes 50x150 mm Atomic absorption spectroscopy
Water vapor permeability (WVT) Three circular sample sizes (7.5x7.5 cm) Vaporometer - permeameter
Flammability test Three samples of length 125 mm x Width 13 mm x Thickness 1.5 mm Test equipment for flammability of 45 degrees, or vertical.
Tensile Strength Five test pieces of 50 mm + -0.5 mm wide. With a length sufficient to allow separation of jaws of 200 mm. Universal machine
Abrasion resistance Ten square samples of approximately 15 cm Martindale abrasión tester

This information allows to clarify for each one of the properties of the non-woven, the required sample sizes, and the necessary equipment to develop their respective characterization, in order to provide tools that allow to speed up their analysis.

V. Conclusion

The objective of this research was to construct a technological surveillance as a basis for studying the nonwoven textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles immersed in their fibers, in order to better understand the properties that improve in these to be reinforced, different authors have addressed the topic of non-woven textiles for various applications including tissue regeneration membranes, water filters, and protective clothing.

Between 2007 and 2017, the number of publications in this field increased significantly, especially in specialized journals with materials, chemistry and biomedical sciences. The countries with the highest number of papers between these years are China with 28 papers and Korea South with 24 papers, but in Scopus there are no reports yet of Colombia, which makes it necessary to increase the R & D processes in our country to provide healthy improvements in hospital settings. At present, only 6 articles produced in Colombia are reported in Scopus in relation to the subject of non-woven mainly in applications of water filters in engineering applications, coatings for Stents in health applications and Geotextiles in applications of earth sciences. Therefore, it is necessary to explore in greater depth the properties of non-woven to be used other multiple applications among them in a hospital environment.

The properties analyzed by the different authors for non-woven textiles are associated with the standard NTC 5366 "Textiles for hospital and institutional use", which describes the minimum requirements that a textile for hospital use must meet. By associating properties with international standards, higher quality can be provided to non-woven textiles through characterization tests.

Various types of natural and synthetic polymers have been used to develop non-woven textiles, according to their properties they present a variety of applications in the biomedical field. International standards for non-woven fabrics specify the appropriate sample sizes and equipment for the characterization protocols. In future studies, the durability of the nonwoven fabric and the time of effect of the antibacterial nanoparticles could be considered, in order to provide more information regarding the useful life of this type of reinforcement.

Acknowledgment

This research was funded by UPB INNOVA 2015 under contract number 438B-08 / 15-65 and by Colciencias in the call for Science, Technology and Innovation in health 711-2015 under contract number 121071149742.

References

1. M. Ohl, M. Schweizer, M. Graham, K. Heilmann, L. Boyken, and D. Diekema, “Hospital privacy curtains are frequently and rapidly contaminated with potentially pathogenic bacteria,” Am. J. Infect. Control, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 904-906, 2012. [ Links ]

2. S. Fijan and S. Š. Turk, “Hospital Textiles, Are They a Possible Vehicle for Healthcare-Associated Infections?,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 9, no. 12, pp. 3330-3343, Sep. 2012. [ Links ]

3. J. C. Cataño, “Colonización de las cortinas de los hospitales con patógenos intrahospitalarios,” Infection, vol. 14, no. 2, Elsevier, pp. 127-131, 2010. [ Links ]

4. I. Perelshtein, A. Lipovsky, N. Perkas, T. Tzanov, M. Аrguirova, M. Leseva, and A. Gedanken, “Making the hospital a safer place by sonochemical coating of all its textiles with antibacterial nanoparticles,” Ultrason. Sonochem., vol. 25, pp. 82-88, 2015. [ Links ]

5. F. Trillis, E. C. Eckstein, R. Budavich, M. J. Pultz, and C. J. Donskey, “Contamination of hospital curtains with healthcareassociated pathogens.,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol., vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 1074-1076, 2008. [ Links ]

6. L. M. Sehulster, “Healthcare Laundry and Textiles in the United States: Review and Commentary on Contemporary Infection Prevention Issues,” Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol., vol. 36, no. 09, pp. 1073-1088, 2015. [ Links ]

7. T. Jeevani, “Nanotextiles-A Broader Perspective,” J. Nanomed. Nanotechnol., vol. 02, no. 07, p. 5, 2011. [ Links ]

8. Y. W. H. Wong, C. W. M. Yuen, M. Y. S. Leung, S. K. A. Ku, and H. L. I. Lam, “Selected applications of nanotechnology in textiles,” AUTEX Res. J., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1-8, 2006. [ Links ]

9. K. Chaloupka, Y. Malam, and A. M. Seifalian, “Nanosilver as a new generation of nanoproduct in biomedical applications,” Trends Biotechnol., vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 580-588, 2010. [ Links ]

10. J. K. Patra and S. Gouda, “Application of nanotechnology in textile engineering: An overview,” J. Eng. Technol. Res., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 104-111, 2013. [ Links ]

11. K. Kairyte, A. Kadys, and Z. Luksiene, “Antibacterial and antifungal activity of photoactivated ZnO nanoparticles in suspension,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol., vol. 128, pp. 78-84, 2013. [ Links ]

12. A. Farouk, S. Moussa, M. Ulbricht, E. Schollmeyer, and T. Textor, “ZnOmodified hybrid polymers as an antibacterial finish for textiles,” Text. Res. J., vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 40-51, Jan. 2014. [ Links ]

13. M. Sui, L. Zhang, L. Sheng, S. Huang, and L. She, “Synthesis of ZnO coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes and their antibacterial activities.,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 452-453, pp. 148-54, 2013. [ Links ]

14. R. K. Dutta, B. P. Nenavathu, and M. K. Gangishetty, “Correlation between defects in capped ZnO nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B Biol., vol. 126, pp. 105-111, 2013. [ Links ]

15. C. Karunakaran, V. Rajeswari, and P. Gomathisankar, “Enhanced photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of solgel synthesized ZnO and Ag-ZnO,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 133-138, 2011. [ Links ]

16. D. Sharma, J. Rajput, B. S. Kaith, M. Kaur, and S. Sharma, “Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and study of their antibacterial and antifungal properties,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 3, pp. 1224-1229, 2010. [ Links ]

17. A. Muñoz-Bonilla and M. Fernández-García, “Polymeric materials with antimicrobial activity,” Prog. Polym. Sci., vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 281-339, 2012. [ Links ]

18. D. I. Braghirolli, D. Steffens, and P. Pranke, “Electrospinning for regenerative medicine: a review of the main topics.,” Drug Discov. Today, Apr. 2014. [ Links ]

19. S. Agarwal, J. H. Wendorff, and A. Greiner, “Use of electrospinning technique for biomedical applications,” Polymer (Guildf)., vol. 49, no. 26, pp. 5603-5621, Dec. 2008. [ Links ]

20. M. Joshi, “Nanotechnology: A New Route to High Performance Textiles,” Text. Prog., vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 272-293, 2011. [ Links ]

21. ELSEVIER, “Elsevier Bases de Datos,” 2017. (Online). Available: Available: http://www.americalatina.elsevier.com/corporate/es/scopus.php . (Accessed: 23-Jan-2017). [ Links ]

22. Scopus, “Scopus - Analyze search results.” (Online). Available: Available: https://www.scopus.com/term/analyzer.uri?sid=9DFC349B9C1C67A75FDAAA7C97F3F269.wsnAw8kcdt7IPYLO0V48gA%3a40&origin=resultslist&src=s&s=TITLE-ABS-KEY%28%22antibacterial%22+AND+%22nanoparticle%22+AND+%22e lectrospun%22+%29&sort=plff&sdt=b&sot=b&sl=68&count=93 . (Accessed: 24-Jan-2017). [ Links ]

23. D. Serbezeanu, A. M. Popa, T. Stelzig, I. Sava, R. M. Rossi, and G. Fortunato, “Preparation and characterization of thermally stable polyimide membranes by electrospinning for protective clothing applications,” Text. Res. J., vol. 85, no. 17, pp. 1763-1775, 2015. [ Links ]

24. I. Krucińska, B. Surma, M. Chrzanowski, E. Skrzetuska, and M. Puchalski, “Application of melt-blown technology in the manufacturing of a solvent vapor-sensitive, non-woven fabric composed of poly(lactic acid) loaded with multi-walled carbon nanotubes,” Text. Res. J., vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 859-870, 2013. [ Links ]

25. M. Puchalski, K. Sulak, M. Chrzanowski, S. Sztajnowski, and I. Kruciska, “Effect of processing variables on the thermal and physical properties of poly(L-lactide) spun bond fabrics,” Text. Res. J., vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 535-547, 2015. [ Links ]

26. P. Heikkilä, A. Sipilä, M. Peltola, A. Harlin, and A. Taipale, “Electrospun PA-66 coating on textile surfaces,” Text. Res. J., vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 864-870, 2007. [ Links ]

27. H. Raj, M. Prasad, K. Taek, Y. A. Seo, D. Raj, S. Tshool, and H. Yong, “Electrospun nylon-6 spider-net like nanofiber mat containing TiO 2 nanoparticles : A multifunctional nanocomposite textile material,” J. Hazard. Mater., vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 124-130, 2011. [ Links ]

28. H. R. Pant, M. P. Bajgai, C. Yi, R. Nirmala, K. T. Nam, W. Il Baek, and H. Y. Kim, “Effect of successive electrospinning and the strength of hydrogen bond on the morphology of electrospun nylon-6 nanofibers,” Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp., vol. 370, no. 1-3, pp. 87-94, 2010. [ Links ]

29. Z. M. Huang, Y. Z. Zhang, S. Ramakrishna, and C. T. Lim, “Electrospinning and mechanical characterization of gelatin nanofibers,” Polymer (Guildf)., vol. 45, no. 15, pp. 5361-5368, 2004. [ Links ]

30. K. Ah Hong, H. Sook Yoo, and E. Kim, “Effect of waterborne polyurethane coating on the durability and breathable waterproofing of electrospun nanofiber web-laminated fabrics,” Text. Res. J., vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 160-170, 2015. [ Links ]

31. P. Kanmani and J.-W. Rhim, “Properties and characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with various biopolymers and ZnO nanoparticles,” Carbohydr. Polym., vol. 106, pp. 190-199, 2014. [ Links ]

32. M. Faccini, C. Vaquero, and D. Amantia, “Development of protective clothing against nanoparticle based on electrospun nanofibers,” J. Nanomater., vol. 2012, 2012. [ Links ]

33. S. Lee and S. K. Obendorf, “Use of Electrospun Nanofiber Web for Protective Textile Materials as Barriers to Liquid Penetration,” Text. Res. J., vol. 77, no. 9, pp. 696-702, 2007. [ Links ]

34. N. Vitchuli, Q. Shi, J. Nowak, K. Kay, J. M. Caldwell, F. Breidt, M. Bourham, M. McCord, and X. W. Zhang, “Multifunctional ZnO/Nylon 6 nanofiber mats by an electrospinningelectrospraying hybrid process for use in protective applications,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 2-8, 2011. [ Links ]

35. B. Gieseking, B. Jäck, E. Preis, S. Jung, M. Forster, U. Scherf, C. Deibel, and V. Dyakonov, “Electrospun Ultrathin Nylon Fibers for Protective Applications,” Polym. Polym. Compos., vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 449-456, Jun. 2012. [ Links ]

36. S. N. Malakhov, S. I. Belousov, A. V. Bakirov, and S. N. Chvalun, “Electrospinning of Non-Woven Materials from the Melt of Polyamide-6 with Added Magnesium, Calcium, and Zinc Stearates,” Fibre Chem., vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 14-19, 2015. [ Links ]

37. J. Y. Wu, C. W. Li, C. H. Tsai, C. W. Chou, D. R. Chen, and G. J. Wang, “Synthesis of antibacterial TiO2/PLGA composite biofilms,” Nanomedicine Nanotechnology, Biol. Med., vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1097-1107, 2014. [ Links ]

38. T. Tajima and S. Sukigara, “Effect of alum treatment on the mechanical and antibacterial properties of poly-glutamic acid nanofibers,” Text. Res. J., vol. 82, no. 12, pp. 1211-1219, 2012. [ Links ]

39. S. Perera, B. Bhushan, R. Bandara, G. Rajapakse, S. Rajapakse, and C. Bandara, “Morphological, antimicrobial, durability, and physical properties of untreated and treated textiles using silvernanoparticles,” Colloids Surfaces A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. , vol. 436, pp. 975-989, 2013. [ Links ]

40. M. Montazer, A. Shamei, and F. Alimohammadi, “Synthesis of nanosilver on polyamide fabric using silver/ammonia complex,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 170-176, 2014. [ Links ]

41. L. Sumin, D. Kimura, Keun Hyung Lee, J. C. Park, and Ick Soo Kim, “The Effect of Laundering on the Thermal and Water Transfer Properties of Mass-produced Laminated Nanofiber Web for Use in Wear,” Text. Res. J., vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 99-105, 2010. [ Links ]

42. X. L. Yin, M. Krifa, and J. H. Koo, “Flame-Retardant Polyamide 6/Carbon Nanotube Nanofibers: Processing and Characterization,” J. Eng. Fiber. Fabr., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1-11, 2015. [ Links ]

43. H. Barani, “Antibacterial continuous nanofibrous hybrid yarn through in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Preparation and characterization,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C, vol. 43, pp. 50-57, 2014. [ Links ]

44. Y. Li, Z. Huang, and Y. Lǚ, “Electrospinning of nylon-6,66,1010 terpolymer,” Eur. Polym. J., vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 1696-1704, Jul. 2006. [ Links ]

45. L. Francis, F. Giunco, A. Balakrishnan, and E. Marsano, “Synthesis, characterization and mechanical properties of nylonsilver composite nanofibers prepared by electrospinning,” Curr. Appl. Phys., vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1005-1008, 2010. [ Links ]

*Autor para la correspondencia. Email: monica.mejias@upb.edu.co.

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License